I found source , which enabled me to fill in (and in some cases to correct) the Change history. At the same time, I checked the Spanish Wikipedia and found that the capitals of three of the comarcas were different from those I had been reporting. I don't know whether this represents a name change for the cities in question, a relocation of the administrative functions, identification of places at a different level in the geographic hierarchy, or old errors on my part.
Paraskevas Renesis sent a link to a Chilean online newspaper that reports that Panama is in the process of creating a new province. Panamá Oeste is to be formed by taking the five districts of Panamá province that lie west of the Panama Canal: Arraiján, Capira, Chame, La Chorrera, and San Carlos. The National Assembly passed the bill on 2013-10-29, and it awaits the president's signature. The new province will have an area of about 2,786 km.² (1,076 mi.²), and its estimated population in 2013 is 461,304. Its capital will be La Chorrera (source ).
When the comarca of Ngöbe Buglé was created in 1997, the legislators didn't check the spelling carefully enough. In the latest census, the comarca's name is given as Ngäbe Buglé. According to source , an article published on 2009-05-16 called attention to the error, saying "The people whose name was changed: ... those who reviewed the law creating the comarca, all Spanish speakers, did not know the Ngabe language. They replaced the 'a' with an 'o'. A correction is now in the hands of the Executive." (My translation and paraphrase.) The letter in controversy is supposed to represent a vowel that is said to sound like English "aw". That sound doesn't occur in Spanish, and neither 'ä' nor 'ö' is found in the Spanish alphabet.
Update 1 to the U.S. standard "Geopolitical Entities and Codes" is dated 2010-08-20. It assigns FIPS codes to two new comarcas, and changes the name of San Blas to Kuna Yala. Newsletter II-2, an update to the ISO 3166-2 standard, is dated 2010-06-30. It assigns ISO codes to three comarcas.
The ISO and FIPS standards and the PCGN (Permanent Committee on Geographical Names for British Official Use) do not recognize the status of Kuna de Madungandí and Kuna de Wargandí as equivalent to that of the provinces.
Panama was a department of Colombia in 1900. With the encouragement of the United States, Panama declared its independence from Colombia on 1903-11-03. The United States then acquired control of the Canal Zone from it. In 1979, the Canal Zone was restored to Panama.
There are several theories about the origin of the name Panama. The best known is that the Spanish explorers found a village on the beach where Panama City now stands. The village was populated by fishermen, and its name, Panama, meant "many fish". Another version is that the name designated a species of tree; or that it meant "many butterflies". Lately, a Kuna chief has asserted that the name came from pannaba, a Kuna word for "very far".
Panama is divided into nine provincias (provinces) and five comarcas.
|Bocas del Toro||p||89,269||4,601||1,777||Bocas del Toro|
|Kuna de Madungandí||c||3,305||2,319||895||Akua Yala|
|Kuna de Wargandí||c||775||299||Uala|
|Kuna Yala||c||32,446||2,393||924||El Porvenir|
|Los Santos||p||83,495||3,805||1,469||Las Tablas|
|Ngäbe Buglé||c||110,080||6,673||2,577||Llano Tugrí|
|Veraguas||p||209,076||10,677||4,122||Santiago (de Veraguas)|
See the Districts of Panama page.
The provinces of Panama are divided into municipal districts, which are further subdivided into corregimientos.
Before the Canal Zone was returned, Colón province had an exclave within the Canal Zone, containing the city of Colón.
If this Map and this Map are correct, Emberá has two separate sections, one of which is completely surrounded by Darién.
If this Map is correct, Ngäbe Buglé has at least two exclaves within Chiriquí and two within Veraguas.
There have been numerous minor boundary adjustments.
|Bocas del Toro||92,731||8,945||3,454||Bocas del Toro|
|Los Santos||76,604||3,806||1,469||Las Tablas|
|San Blas||34,134||2,357||910||El Porvenir|
|Bocas del Toro||22,732||27,239||15,851||16,523||22,392||32,600||43,531||53,487||74,139||89,269|
Column headings are dates of censuses. Kuna Yala figures for 1940-1960 are included in Colón. The source doesn't explain why a population is given for Ngäbe Buglé in 1990, before it was created; nor whether the population of Canal Zone is included in the figures for 1911-1970.
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