2014-01: I now recognize that there are some comarcas that rank with provinces, and other comarcas that rank with districts. Up until now I have listed Kuna de Madungandí and Kuna de Wargandí as primary subdivisions. The standards ignore them, and the Panamanian census returns don't show them on the province level, so I am reverting to showing them as part of Panamá and Darién provinces, respectively. At the same time, the creation of Panamá Oeste province became official.
I have updated population data to the 2010 census using source .
I found source , which enabled me to fill in (and in some cases to correct) the Change history. At the same time, I checked the Spanish Wikipedia and found that the capitals of three of the comarcas were different from those I had been reporting. I don't know whether this represents a name change for the cities in question, a relocation of the administrative functions, identification of places at a different level in the geographic hierarchy, or old errors on my part.
When the comarca of Ngöbe Buglé was created in 1997, the legislators didn't check the spelling carefully enough. In the latest census, the comarca's name is given as Ngäbe Buglé. According to source , an article published on 2009-05-16 called attention to the error, saying "The people whose name was changed: ... those who reviewed the law creating the comarca, all Spanish speakers, did not know the Ngabe language. They replaced the 'a' with an 'o'. A correction is now in the hands of the Executive." (My translation and paraphrase.) The letter in controversy is supposed to represent a vowel that is said to sound like English "aw". That sound doesn't occur in Spanish, and neither 'ä' nor 'ö' is found in the Spanish alphabet.
Update 1 to the U.S. standard "Geopolitical Entities and Codes" is dated 2010-08-20. It assigns FIPS codes to two new comarcas, and changes the name of San Blas to Kuna Yala. Newsletter II-2, an update to the ISO 3166-2 standard, is dated 2010-06-30. It assigns ISO codes to three comarcas.
Panama was a department of Colombia in 1900. With the encouragement of the United States, Panama declared its independence from Colombia on 1903-11-03. The United States then acquired control of the Canal Zone from it. In 1979, the Canal Zone was restored to Panama.
There are several theories about the origin of the name Panama. The best known is that the Spanish explorers found a village on the beach where Panama City now stands. The village was populated by fishermen, and its name, Panama, meant "many fish". Another version is that the name designated a species of tree; or that it meant "many butterflies". Lately, a Kuna chief has asserted that the name came from pannaba, a Kuna word for "very far".
Panama is divided into ten provincias (provinces) and three comarcas.
|Bocas del Toro||p||125,461||4,601||1,777||Bocas del Toro|
|Kuna Yala||c||33,109||2,393||924||El Porvenir|
|Los Santos||p||89,592||3,805||1,469||Las Tablas|
|Ngäbe Buglé||c||156,747||6,673||2,577||Llano Tugrí|
|Panamá Oeste||p||464,038||2,786||1,076||La Chorrera|
|Veraguas||p||226,991||10,677||4,122||Santiago (de Veraguas)|
See the Districts of Panama page.
The provinces of Panama are divided into municipal districts, which are further subdivided into corregimientos.
Before the Canal Zone was returned, Colón province had an exclave within the Canal Zone, containing the city of Colón.
If this Map and this Map are correct, Emberá has two separate sections, one of which is completely surrounded by Darién.
If this Map is correct, Ngäbe Buglé has at least two exclaves within Chiriquí and two within Veraguas.
There have been numerous minor boundary adjustments.
|Bocas del Toro||92,731||8,945||3,454||Bocas del Toro|
|Los Santos||76,604||3,806||1,469||Las Tablas|
|San Blas||34,134||2,357||910||El Porvenir|
PA.PA, 2010 population 1,713,070, area 11,952 km.²). It consists of Arraiján, Capira, Chame, La Chorrera, and San Carlos districts. This is the implementation of Law No. 119 of 2013-12-30.
|Bocas del Toro||22,732||27,239||15,851||16,523||22,392||32,600||43,531||53,487||74,139||89,269||125,461|
Column headings are dates of censuses. Kuna Yala figures for 1940-1960 are included in Colón. Source  doesn't explain why a population is given for Ngäbe Buglé in 1990, before it was created; nor whether the population of Canal Zone is included in the figures for 1911-1970.
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