"Geopolitical Entities, Names, and Codes, Edition 2" (GENC), a U.S. standard that's supposed to correspond to ISO 3166-2, was issued on
2014-03-31. It gives Xaisômboun the code
LA-XN. The ISO website currently shows that same code. It's not clear whether the
code was withdrawn during the period (2006-2013) when Xaisômboun didn't exist, or ISO didn't take cognizance of the changes.
Update 7 to Geopolitical Entities and Codes, the successor to FIPS standard 10-4, was issued with the date 2012-02-01. It removes
Xaisômboun and changes the spelling of Xiangkhoang to Xiangkhouang.
Xaisômboun special region was created in 1994-06. Change Notice 1 to FIPS PUB 10-4, dated 1998-12-01, lists a division of Laos into 16
provinces, one city, and one special zone. ISO 3166-2 Newsletter Number I-2 was published on 2002-05-21. It showed Xaisômboun special
region, but called it a province. This error was corrected in ISO 3166-2 Newsletter number I-4, dated 2002-12-10. Xaisômboun special
region was dissolved on 2006-01-13.
Erratum: "Administrative Subdivisions of Countries" says that Luang Prabang is the capital of Laos. It should be
Vientiane. I don't know where the error originated. Source  says that the "administrative seat moved from Louangphrabang to Vientiane
c. 1563 due to hostilities with Burmese and Thais". The Statesman's Year-Book (1959 edition) said that Luang Prabang was currently the
royal capital, and Vientiane, the administrative capital.
|Language||Lao (lo), French (fr)|
Laos was a French colony at the start of the 20th century. It was a union of two former kingdoms, Luang Prabang and Vientiane. The
French administered it as a territory within the protectorate of French Indo-China. After World War II, French Indo-China was divided up
into three independent countries within the French Union: Cambodia, Laos (independent on 1949-07-19), and Vietnam. See Cambodia for
Other names of country:
- Danish: Laos
- Dutch: Laos, Lao Democratische Volksrepubliek (formal)
- English: Lao People's Democratic Republic (formal), Lanxang (obsolete)
- Finnish: Laos
- French: Laos m, République f démocratique populaire Lao
- German: Laos, Demokratische Volksrepublik f Laos n
- Italian: Laos m
- Lao: Saathiaranarath Prachhathipatay Prachhachhon Lao (formal)
- Norwegian: Den demokratiske folkerepublikk Laos (formal) (Bokmål), Den demokratiske folkerepublikken Laos (formal) (Nynorsk), Laos
- Portuguese: Laos m, República f Popular Democrática Lao (formal)
- Russian: Лаос, Лаосская Народно-Демократическая Республика (formal)
- Spanish: Laos, República f Democrática Popular Lao (formal)
- Swedish: Laos
- Turkish: Laos Demokratik Halk Cumhuriyeti (formal)
Origin of name:
ethnic name Lao, applied by Portuguese explorers in the plural
Laos is divided into seventeen khoueng (provinces) and one kampeng nakhon (municipality or prefecture).
|112,097||10,320||3,985||Attapu (Muang Samakhisai)|
|337,314||16,315||6,299||Thakhek (Muang Khammouan)|
|825,879||22,080||8,525||Savannakhét (Muang Khanthabouly)|
|39,416|| ||Ban Mouang Cha|
|84,985||7,665||2,959||Ban Phone (Muang Laman)|
- Province: Vientiane [prefecture] is a municipality.
- HASC: Hierarchical administrative subdivision codes.
- ISO: Province codes from ISO 3166-2. For full identification in a global context, prefix "
the code (ex:
LA-SL represents Saravan).
- FIPS: Code from FIPS PUB 10-4.
- Pc: First two digits of postal codes.
- Population: 2005-03-01 census (source ).
- Area: Source .
Laos uses four-digit postal codes (source ). They don't seem to be much used. The system was probably implemented before Xaisômboun
special region was created.
See the Districts of Laos page.
The provinces are further subdivided into muong (districts).
Origins of names:
- Bokeo: Lao for "gem mine"
- Vientiane: Lao vieng: city, chan: sandalwood
- 1904: Two Siamese (Thai) provinces, corresponding to modern Xaignabouri and parts of Louangphrabang and Vientiane, annexed to Laos.
Stoeng Trêng province transferred from Laos to Cambodge.
- 1941: The same provinces were restored to Thailand under pressure from Japan.
- 1947: The same provinces reverted to Laos as pre-war boundaries were restored.
- 1966: Name of Nam Tha province changed to Houakhong.
- ~1969: Capital of Xiangkhoang moved from Xiangkhoang to Phônsavan after the former was destroyed by bombing.
- ~1972: Name of capital of Khammouan province changed from Thakhek to Muang Khammouan.
- 1973-11-20: Champhon province (capital Ban Kengkok) temporarily split from Savannakhét; Vangviang province (Muang Vangviang)
temporarily created from parts of Louangphrabang and Vientiane.
- 1973-12-26: Hôngxa province (Muang Hôngxa) and Paklay (Muang Paklay) temporarily split from Xaignabouri.
- ~1976: (Capitals in parentheses.) Name of Houakhong province changed back to Louang Namtha; Borikhan province (Muang Pakxan) merged
with Vientiane; Xédôn (Pakxé) and Sithandon (Muang Khong) provinces merged with Champasak (Champasak); Vapikhamthong
province (Muang Khôngxédôn) merged with Saravan; Oudômxai province split from Louangphrabang.
- 1983: Bokeo province split from Louang Namtha (formerly FIPS=LA05); Bolikhamxai province formed from parts of Khammouan (LA04) and
Vientiane (LA11) provinces; Xékong province split from Saravan (LA09).
- ~1987: Capital of Oudômxai province moved from Ban Nahin to Muang Xay.
- ~1989: Vientiane prefecture split from Vientiane province (LA21); capital of Vientiane province moved from Vientiane to Muang
- 1994-06: Xaisômboun khetphiset (special region) formed from parts of Bolikhamxai, Vientiane, and Xiangkhoang provinces.
|112,097||87,700||10,320||Attapu (Muang Samakhisai)|
|337,314||275,400||16,315||Thakhek (Muang Khammouan)|
|825,879||674,900||21,774||Savannakhét (Muang Khanthabouly)|
|39,416|| ||7,105||Ban Mouang Cha|
|84,985||64,200||7,665||Ban Phone (Muang Laman)|
- Province: Vientiane [prefecture] is a municipality and Xaisômboun is a special region.
- HASC: Hierarchical administrative subdivision codes. If periods are replaced by
these are the same as the province codes from ISO standard 3166-2, except for the
special zone, whose ISO code is
- FIPS: Code from FIPS PUB 10-4.
- Pop-1996: 1996 estimates, based on 1995-03-01 census (source ).
- Pop-2005: 2005-03-01 census (source ).
- Area: Provided by Karem Abdalla.
- 2006-01-13: Xaisômboun special region dissolved. "Longsan, Xaysomboun, Phun, and Hom districts were added to Vientiane
province while Thathon district was attributed to Xiengkhuang province" (source ). From this date until 2013, the HASC codes
for Vientiane and Xiangkhoang provinces were
- 2013-12-31: Xaisômboun restored as a province. I haven't been able to get any details, so I've assumed it took the same
borders and capital that it had in 2006.
Other names of subdivisions:
In transcription from Lao, some sources break names at syllable endings (e.g. Boli Kham Xai)
- Attapu: Atpu, Attapeu, Attopei, Attopeu, Muang Mai (variant)
- Bolikhamxai: Bolikhamsai, Bolikhamxay, Borikhamzay (variant); Borikane, Borikhan, Borikhane (obsolete)
- Champasak: Bassac, Champassack, Champassak (variant); Champassac, Khong, Pakse (French)
- Houaphan: Hua Phan, Huaphanh (variant); Sam Neua, Xam Nua (obsolete)
- Khammouan: Khammouane, Khammuan, Khammuane (variant)
- Louang Namtha: Haut-Mekong (French-obsolete); Luangnamtha, Muong Luang Namtha, Namtha (variant); Hiuakhong, Houa Khong, Upper Mekong (obsolete)
- Louangphrabang: Loang Prabang, Louangphabang, Louang Prabang, Luang Phabang, Luangphrabang, Luang Prabang (variant)
- Oudômxai: Oudomsai, Oudomsay, Oudomxay, UdomXay (variant)
- Phôngsali: Fong Sali, Phongsaly (variant)
- Saravan: Salavan, Salavane, Saravane (variant)
- Savannakhét: Svannakhet (variant)
- Vientiane: Viangchan (variant)
- Vientiane [prefecture]: Kamphaeng Nakhon Viang Chan (formal); Vientián (Spanish)
- Xaignabouri: Sayaboury, Xaignabouli, Xayabouri, Xayabury (variant)
- Xaisômboun: Saysomboune, Xaysomboun (variant)
- Xékong: Sekhong, Sekong (variant)
- Xiangkhoang: Xiang Khouang, Xieng Khouang, Xiengkhuang, Xieng Khwang (variant)
-  The U.S. Postal Service page on Country Conditions for Mailing -
Laos (retrieved 2010-11-23) has a partial list of Laotian postal codes. (First retrieved from
http://pe.usps.gov/text/Imm/immicl/immicllm_001.html, now a dead link, on 2007-09-02).
-  Socio-economic ATLAS of the Lao PDR, Section A: Geographical
Overview . Page 6 has a map of the districts of Laos (retrieved 2010-11-23).
-  The Statesman's Yearbook 1997-98, ed. Brian Hunter. St. Martin's Press, New York 1997.
-  Dependency Ratio by Province, result from the
population census 2005 (click on the "DependencyRatio" tab at the bottom; retrieved 2020-11-23). The
two columns add up to the total population for each province.
-  German Development Cooperation with Laos page has a
mouse-sensitive map and some history of province formation (retrieved 2010-11-23). However, its data are in such perfect agreement with
mine that I suspect they were acquired from the Statoids site; therefore, citing this page would be circular reasoning.
-  Library of Congress country study (retrieved 1999).
-  Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, Third Edition. G. & C. Merriam, Springfield, MA, 1997.