The system of NUTS codes for Finland was updated in 2010.
ISO 3166-2 Newsletter II-3 is dated 2011-12-15. For Finland, this update assigns ISO codes to the regions.
Update 4 to Geopolitical Entities and Codes, the successor to FIPS PUB 10-4, was issued on 2011-04-30. It removes East Uusimaa from the
list of regions.
Update 1 to the U.S. standard "Geopolitical Entities and Codes" is dated 2010-08-20. It assigns FIPS codes to the twenty new regions.
ISO 3166-1 Newsletter number V-9, dated 2004-02-13, informs us that Åland Islands has been assigned a separate country code
AX. In making this change, ISO is simply following the lead of the United Nations Statistics Division, which added
Åland to its country list in 2003. Åland has been gaining increasing autonomy from Finland over the decades, but it's not
clear whether the U.N.S.D. revision is in response to any specific change in status. The most recent such change that I've found is the
third Autonomy Act, with an effective date of 1993-01-01. The preamble to the ISO 3166-1 document states, "The list contains overlaps
in those cases where entities are geographically separated from their main entity ... the entities are not mutually exclusive." My
policy for this site has been to divide the land area of the world into countries exhaustively and exclusively, following the list of
countries in ISO 3166-1. Therefore, I treat Åland as a separate country and not part of Finland.
When "Administrative Subdivisions of Countries" went to press, Finland had just undergone a reorganization. The book contained
Finland's new provinces, but the standards had not yet issued new codes for them. The codes first appeared in international standard
ISO 3166-2 (1998-12-15) and FIPS PUB 10-4 Change notice 2 (1999-03-01).
|Languages||Finnish (fi), Swedish (sv)|
|Time zone||+2 ~|
Finland was a grand duchy of the Russian Empire in 1900, enjoying a good measure of autonomy. It declared its independence on
1917-07-20. During World War II, Finland and the Soviet Union fought each other. Finland had to make several territorial concessions.
Since 1947, Finland's borders have remained intact. Swedish is an official language, but is spoken by a small minority, so names given
here are Finnish unless otherwise stated.
Other names of country:
- Danish: Finland
- Dutch: Finland, Republiek Finland (formal)
- English: Republic of Finland (formal)
- Finnish: Suomi, Suomen Tasavalta (formal)
- French: Finlande f
- German: Finnland n
- Icelandic: Finnland
- Italian: Finlandia f
- Norwegian: Finland, Republikken Finland (formal)
- Portuguese: Finlândia, República f da Finlândia f (formal)
- Russian: Финляндия, Финляндская
- Spanish: Finlandia, República f de Finlandia f (formal)
- Swedish: Finland, Republiken Finland (formal)
- Turkish: Finlandiya Cumhuriyeti (formal)
Origin of name:
Land of Finns, from Germanic finna: fish scale, since suomu is Finnish for fish scale
Finland, as usually understood, is divided into nineteen maakunnat (sing. maakunta, regions; Swedish landskap). One of the regions is
Åland. As explained above, Åland has been given a separate country code, so I no longer include it as part of Finland. It is listed in the
table here for completeness, but not included in the column totals.
|Total exc. Åland||5,298,858||302,346||116,737|
- Region: English name of region.
- HASC: Hierarchical administrative subdivision codes.
- ISO: Codes from ISO 3166-2.
- FIPS: Codes from the U.S. government standard "Geopolitical Entities and Codes".
- NUTS: Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics.
- RC: Regional councils numbers from Finland Interior Ministry.
- Population: 2008-12-31 estimate (using 2009 regional division)
- Prov: ISO code for former province (see table under Change history).
Finland has five-digit postal codes. They don't correlate well with primary subdivisions. For a very approximate correspondence
between the first two digits of a postal code and its location, see the table of former provinces under Change history (1960). Postal
codes for Finnish addresses can be identified by prefixing them with "FI-". (The prefix "SF-", for Suomi Finland, was used until
1993-01-01. Then "FIN-" was used until 2004.)
See the Sub-regions of Finland page.
Finland (including Åland) is divided into nineteen regional councils, which are subdivided into seutukunnat (sing. seutukunta:
sub-regions), which are further subdivided into kaupunki (Swedish stad: urban communes) and kunta (rural communes). The total number of
communes has been decreasing, from 475 in 1976 to 452 in 1998 to 348 in 2009.
Eurostat maintains a hierarchical set of subdivisions of all the countries in the European Union for statistical purposes. The system
is called NUTS (Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics). In the case of Finland, there are two NUTS1 areas: Manner-Suomi
(continental Finland), coded
FI1, and Ahvenanmaa (Åland), coded
FI2. At level 2, the country is divided into the
five NUTS2 areas shown in the table below. The column headed "Was" shows the codes applied to those same areas before the changes made in
2010. The NUTS3 areas are the regions, with the codes shown in the main table above.
|Länsi-Suomi (West Finland)||same|
|Helsinki-Uusimaa||part of |
|Etelä-Suomi (South Finland)||part of |
|Pohjois- ja Itä-Suomi (North and East Finland)|
- Oulu includes the island of Hailuoto.
- Southern Finland includes the island of Haapasaari and other small islands in the Gulf of Finland north of Ostrov Gogland.
- Western Finland is separated from Åland by the Skiftet, or Kihti (channel). It includes islands east of the Skiftet and north of
Åland up to the midline of the Gulf of Bothnia. Among them are Kimito, Nagu, Bergö, and Vallgrund.
- Märkets Fyr, an island in the Baltic Sea, is divided between Sweden and Finland. Finland accidentally built a lighthouse on Swedish
territory, so the border was redrawn to exchange equal amounts of land between the two countries.
Origins of names (including old provinces):
- Lappi: from Norse Lappland: the land at the end.
- Mikkeli: named for the city, which was named for Saint Michael.
- Pohjois-Karjala: Karjala (Karelia) comes from Finnish karja: herd.
- Turku ja Pori: named for its two main cities (Finnish ja: and). Turku is a word for marketplace in the regional
- Uusimaa: Finnish for new land. Its Swedish name, Nyland, means the same.
- Vaasa: probably from King Gustavus Vasa I of Sweden (1496-1560), who created the Grand Duchy of Finland.
- 1918: Ahvenanmaa split from Turku ja Pori province.
- 1921-10: Ahvenanmaa granted autonomous status by a decision of the League of Nations.
- 1938: Lappi province split from Oulu province.
- 1940-03-12: In peace treaty ending Finnish-Russian War, Finland ceded several border territories to the Soviet Union, including
about half of Viipuri province (with the port of Viborg), and part of Kuopio.
- 1945: Name of Viipuri province (Viborg in Swedish) changed to Kymi. At this date, Finland consisted of ten läänit (sing. lääni,
Swedish län, translated departments or provinces), as listed here.
- Province: Names in Finnish.
- Pop-1940: 1940 census (source ).
- Pop-1950: 1950-12-31 census (source ).
- Areas: Source  says, "figures for 1945".
- 1947: In Paris peace treaty, Finland reaffirmed the cessions of 1940 (some of which it had temporarily reconquered), and ceded more
land to the Soviet Union, including the strip of Lappi that had connected Finland to the Arctic Ocean around Petsamo.
- 1960-03-01: Pohjois-Karjala province split from Kuopio; Keski-Suomi province formed from parts of Häme, Kuopio, Mikkeli, and Vaasa.
At this point, the divisions were as follows.
|688,355||19,104||7,376||Hämeenlinna||Southern, Western||11-19, 30-39|
|335,093||12,828||4,953||Kouvola||Southern||45-49, 53-56, 59|
|207,875||21,660||8,363||Mikkeli||Eastern, Southern||50-52, 57-58, 76-79|
|Turku ja Pori|
- Province: except for Ahvenanmaa, which was an autonomous province. Names in Finnish.
- ISO: Codes from ISO 3166-2.
- FIPS: Codes from FIPS PUB 10-4.
- Population: 1993 estimate.
- Capital: Finnish/Swedish names, where different.
- Now: Modern province(s) in the same area.
- Pc: Approximate postal code range for province.
- 1995-01-01: Finland joined the European Union.
- 1997-02: Finland divided into 20 regions, without abolishing the provinces.
- 1997-09-01: Finland reorganized into five provinces (shown below) and Åland.
- Province: English name of province.
- HASC: Hierarchical administrative subdivision codes.
- ISO: Province codes from ISO 3166-2. For full identification in a global context, prefix
to the code (ex:
FI-OL represents Oulu).
- FIPS: Codes from FIPS PUB 10-4, a U.S. government standard.
- Population: 1997-12-31 estimate
- 2004-02-13: ISO 3166-1 Newsletter number V-9 assigned a separate country code to Åland Islands. According to my criteria,
this makes them no longer part of Finland.
- 2010-01-01: The provinces of Finland were abolished. The already existing 20 regions became the new primary subdivisions.
- 2011-01-01: Eastern Uusimaa region merged with Uusimaa. Its former codes were HASC
FI182, RC 3; its 2008 population was 93,491, and its area was 2,736 km². Its capital was Porvoo. The HASC code for
FI.UU before the merge.
Other names of subdivisions:
- Åland: Ahvenanmaa (Finnish); Åland Islands (variant)
- Central Finland: Finlande centrale (French); Keski-Suomi (Finnish); Mellersta Finland (Swedish)
- Central Ostrobothnia: Keski-Pohjanmaa (Finnish); Mellersta Österbotten (Swedish); Ostrobotnie centrale (French)
- East Uusimaa: Itä-Uusimaa (Finnish); Östra Nyland (Swedish)
- Kainuu: Kajanaland (Swedish)
- Kanta-Häme: Häme, Tavastia Proper (variant); Egentliga Tavastland (Swedish)
- Kymenlaakso: Kymmenedalen (Swedish)
- Lapland: Laponia (Spanish); Lapônia (Portuguese); Laponie (French); Lappi (Finnish); Lappland (Icelandic, Swedish);
- North Karelia: Carelia del Norte (Spanish); Carélie du Nord (French); Norra Karelen (Swedish); Pohjois-Karjala (Finnish)
- North Ostrobothnia: Norra Österbotten (Swedish); Ostrobotnie du Nord (French); Oulu Region (variant); Pohjois-Pohjanmaa (Finnish)
- North Savo: North Savonia (variant); Pohjois-Savo (Finnish); Norra Savolax (Swedish)
- Ostrobothnia: Österbotten (Swedish); Ostrobotnie (French); Pohjanmaa, Vaasan Rannikkoseutu (Finnish); Vaasa Coastal (variant)
- Päijät-Häme: Päijänne Tavastia (variant); Päijänne Tavastland (Swedish)
- Satakunta: Satakunda (Swedish)
- South Karelia: Etelä-Karjala (Finnish); Södra Karelen (Swedish)
- South Ostrobothnia: Etelä-Pohjanmaa (Finnish); Ostrobotnie du Sud (French); Södra Österbotten (Swedish)
- South Savo: Etelä-Savo (Finnish); Södra Savolax (Swedish); South Savonia (variant)
- Southwest Finland: Egentliga Finland (Swedish); Finland Proper (variant); Varsinais-Suomi (Finnish)
- Tampere Region: Birkaland (Swedish); Pirkanmaa (Finnish)
- Uusimaa: Nyland (Icelandic, Swedish)
provinces of 1997:
- Eastern Finland: Itä-Suomen lääni (Finnish); Östra Finlands län (Swedish)
- Lapland: Lapin lääni, Lappi (Finnish); Laponia (Spanish); Lapônia (Portuguese); Laponie (French); Lappland (Icelandic); Lapplands
län (Swedish); Sápmi (Saame)
- Oulu: Oulun lääni (Finnish); Uleåborgs län (Swedish)
- Southern Finland: Etelä-Suomen lääni (Finnish); Södra Finlands län (Swedish)
- Western Finland: Länsi-Suomen lääni (Finnish); Västra Finlands län (Swedish)
provinces of 1960:
- Häme: Hämeen lääni (Finnish); Tavaste (French); Tavastehus län (Swedish); Tavastland (English)
- Keski-Suomi: Central Finland (English); Finlande centrale (French); Keski-Suomen lääni (Finnish); Mellersta Finlands län (Swedish)
- Kuopio: Kuopio län (Swedish); Kuopion lääni (Finnish)
- Kymi: Kymen lääni (Finnish); Kymmene län (Swedish); Viborg (Swedish-obsolete); Viipuri (obsolete)
- Mikkeli: Mikkelin lääni (Finnish); Saint Michels län (Swedish)
- Pohjois-Karjala: Carelia del Norte (Spanish); Carélie du Nord (French); North Karelia (English); Pohjois-Karjalan lääni (Finnish);
Norra Karelens län (Swedish)
- Turku ja Pori: Turku et Pori (French); Turku-Pori, Turun ja Porin lääni (Finnish); Åbo-Björneborg, Åbo och Björneborgs län (Swedish)
- Uusimaa: Nyland (Icelandic); Nylands län (Swedish); Uudenmaan lääni (Finnish)
- Vaasa: Vaasan lääni (Finnish); Vasa län (Swedish); Wasa (obsolete)
-  Toponymic Guidelines for Map Editors and Other Editors:
Finland . United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names, New York, 2004; revised 2009 (retrieved
-  Statistics
Finland 's interactive page for querying the population database (retrieved 2010-01-30)
-  Reform Project for Regional
Administration (retrieved 2010-01-30)
-  National Land Survey of Finland
has a file showing areas of all municipalities and regions (retrieved 2010-01-30)
-  "Suomen Tilastollinen Vuosikirja 1991" (Finland statistical yearbook)
-  Bennett, Robert, ed., Territory and Administration in Europe. Pinter Publishers, London and New York, 1989
-  Fourth United Nations Conference on the Standardization of Geographical Names, Vol. II, United Nations, New York, 1987
-  Library of Congress country study
-  Valtioneuvosto päätti Uudenmaan ja
Itä-Uudenmaan maakuntien yhdistämisestä (Google Translate interprets this as "Government decides on
Uusimaa and Eastern Uusimaa Regional integration"; dated 2009-10-22, retrieved 2011-09-11).
-  Demographic
Yearbook , 7th Ed. Statistical Office of the United Nations, New York, 1955 (retrieved 2011-08-20).
-  Webster's Geographical Dictionary. G. & C. Merriam, Springfield, MA, 1957.