A referendum was held in Crimea on 2014-03-16. The announced result was overwhelming approval for
the proposal to split from Ukraine and join Russia. The vote presumably applied equally to
Sevastopol' City. At present, Crimea and Sevastopol' are under Russian control, but are considered
still part of Ukraine by the international community. They switched to Moscow time when the rest
of Ukraine went on daylight saving, by setting their clocks ahead two hours instead of one.
The Donets'k and Luhans'k regions have each formed a separatist government. Referenda were held in
them on 2014-05-11. The reported results were in favor of secession, and the Donets'k People's
Republic and Luhans'k People's Republic were declared. On 2014-06-26, the two formed a federation
called the Union of the People’s Republics of Donetsk and Luhansk. The territories are still being
claimed by Ukraine and armed conflict breaks out periodically. No other country has recognized
their independence. Both republics have announced the intention to switch to Moscow time, which
would put them on UTC+3 year round.
FIPS PUB 10-4 is the U.S. Federal standard for administrative divisions of countries. Change 1 to
FIPS PUB 10-4 is dated December 1, 1998. One of the changes is to the status of one of the
divisions of Ukraine. Crimea has been changed from a respublika (republic) to an avtonomna
respublika (autonomous republic). ISO still lists Crimea as a republic.
At the beginning of the 20th century, the bulk of modern Ukraine was in the Russian Empire; the
rest was in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. In the chaos of World War I and the Russian Revolution,
the Russian part of Ukraine declared itself an independent republic. In 1922, it joined the
U.S.S.R. as one of its constituent republics. In World War II, the Soviet Union made significant
territorial gains, some of which were annexed to the Ukrainian S.S.R. Ukraine became independent
once again in 1991 when the Soviet Union dissolved.
Other names of country:
- Danish: Ukraine
- Dutch: Oekraine, Oekraïne
- Finnish: Ukraina
- French: Ukraine f
- German: Ukraine f
- Icelandic: Úkraína
- Italian: Ucraina f
- Norwegian: Ukraina
- Portuguese: Ucránia f, Ucrânia (Brazil)
- Russian: Украина
- Spanish: Ucrania f
- Swedish: Ukraina
- Turkish: Ukrayna
- Ukrainian: Ukrayina (formal)
Origin of name:
Russian u: near, krai: border, named when the Mongol invasion had reached that area
Ukraine is divided into 24 oblastey (sing. oblast': region), two mista (sing. misto: independent
city), and one avtonomna respublika (autonomous republic).
|95-98||2,033,736||26,081||10,070||Autonomous Republic of Krym||Simferopol'|
|01-06||2,611,327||839||324||Kyïvs'ka mis'ka rada||Kiev|
|99||379,492||864||334||Sevastopol's'ka mis'ka rada||Sevastopol'|
- Typ: o = oblast', i = independent city, a = autonomous republic.
- HASC: Hierarchical administrative subdivision codes.
- ISO: Codes from ISO 3166-2.
- FIPS: Codes from FIPS PUB 10-4.
- Post: Range of postal codes in this division.
- Population: 2001-12-05 census
- Alternate name: based on Ukrainian name
Ukraine used to use six-digit postal codes under the Soviet system, all of which fell in the
range 24xxxx-34xxxx. Since then it has adopted a set of five-digit postal codes, in which the
first two digits determine the region, and the first three digits determine the district.
See the Raions of Ukraine page.
The regions are divided into rayony (districts).
Crimea includes Kosa Tuzla, an island in the Strait of Kerch.
Kherson includes the barrier islands of Tendrivs'ka Kosa and Dzharylhach; the northern end of
the long promontory Kosa Arabats'ka Strilka; and some islands in "Lake" Syvash, the bay enclosed by
that promontory, such as Chut'uk Island.
Origins of names:
- Crimea: Greek kremnoi: escarpments
- Dnepropetrovs'k: Dniepr (River) + (Grigoriy Ivanovich) Petrovskiy, Soviet politician
- Kharkiv: possibly from Tatar karak: bandit, the city of bandits
- Khmel'nyts'kyy: probably after Bogdan Khmel'nyts'kyy (1593-1657), Ukrainian warlord
- Kirovohrad: after Sergei Mironovich Kirov (1886-1934), Russian politician
- Transcarpathia: Latin trans: beyond + Carpathian (Mountains), as seen from Kiev
At the turn of the century, nine guberniy (governments) of Russia approximately matched the
eastern and central parts of present-day Ukraine: Chernigov, Kharkov, Kherson, Kiev, Podolia,
Poltava, Taurida, Volhynia, and Yekaterinoslav (see Russia for more details). The governments were
divided into uyezdi (counties), which were subdivided into volosti (districts). The western parts
of Ukraine were in the Austrian provinces of Galicia and Bukovina, and the Hungarian counties of
Bereg, Máramaros, Ugocsa, and Ung (see Hungary for more details).
- 1918-01: Russian part of Ukraine declared independence. Later that year, Ukrainians in East
Galicia formed their own republic in federation with Ukraine.
- 1918-03-03: By the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, Russia acknowledged the independence of Ukraine.
The region of Chelm was transferred from Poland to Ukraine.
- 1919: Paris Peace Conference made East Galicia a protectorate of Poland. Russia and Germany
had both renounced the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk.
- 1919-12: Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic established.
- 1921-03-18: Poland and Russia signed the Riga Treaty, ending the Russo-Polish War. Poland
gained the western part of Volhynia from Ukraine.
- 1921: Crimea became an A.S.S.R. within the Russian S.F.S.R. The rest of Taurida guberniya was
split between Odessa and Yekaterinoslav guberniy.
- 1922-12-30: By the Treaty of Union, Ukrainian S.S.R. became a constituent republic of the
newly formed Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, with its capital at Kharkov. It contained the
nine guberniy, excluding the Crimea, four counties in northern Chernigov, and territory lost to
Poland, but including one county from the guberniya of Kursk.
- ~1923: Donets guberniya split from Yekaterinoslav. Its capital was Bakhmut (later Artemovsk).
- 1924: Moldavian A.S.S.R. split from Ukraine, consisting of Bessarabian territory on the left
bank of the Dniestr River.
- 1925: Ukraine reorganized into 53 okruhas (provinces), subdivided into raiony (districts).
- ~1927: Taganrog and Shakhty provinces transferred from Ukraine to Russia.
- 1932: Ukraine reorganized again, this time into seven oblastey (regions), subdivided into
- 1934: Capital of Ukrainian S.S.R. moved from Kharkov to Kiev.
- 1935: Name of Lugansk region and its capital changed to Voroshilovgrad, in honor of Marshal
Kliment Yefremovich Voroshilov (1881-1969).
- 1939: Splits had increased the number of regions to sixteen.
- 1939-09: Soviet conquests in Galicia annexed to Ukrainian S.S.R.
- 1940-06: Northern Bukovina transferred from Romania to Ukrainian S.S.R. by treaty. It became
- 1940-08-02: Soviet Union assimilated Bessarabia, a former guberniya of Russia, which it had
retaken from Romania. From parts of Bessarabia and the Moldavian A.S.S.R., the Moldavian S.S.R.
was created. The remaining parts merged with the Ukraine (the Moldavian part joined with Odessa,
and the Bessarabian part becoming the new region of Izmail). The annexation was formalized on
- 1945-06-29: Soviet Union acquired Subcarpathian Ruthenia, also called Carpatho-Ukraine, from
Czechoslovakia. It became Transcarpathia region within the Ukrainian S.S.R.
- 1945-07-16: Potsdam Conference began. As one outcome, the Soviet Union recovered territory
lost in the Russo-Polish War up to approximately the Curzon Line, annexing it to the republics of
Byelorussia, Lithuania, and Ukraine. This territory became the regions of Drogobych, L'vov, Rovno,
Stanislav, Ternopol', Transcarpathia, and Volyn.
- 1954-02-19: Crimea (now an oblast) transferred from Russian S.F.S.R. to Ukrainian S.S.R.
- ~1955: Cherkassy region formed from parts of Kiev and Poltava. Izmail merged with Odessa.
Names of Kamenets-Podol'skiy region and its capital Proskurov both changed to Khmelnitsky.
- 1958: Name of Voroshilovgrad region and its capital changed back to Lugansk.
- 1961: Name of Stalino region and its capital changed to Donetsk.
- 1962: Name of Stanislav region and its capital changed to Ivano-Frankovsk.
- ~1963: Drogobych region merged with L'vov.
- 1991-12-25: Soviet Union officially dissolved. Its 15 constituent republics became
independent countries. Many of them had already unilaterally declared independence in the
preceding few months. Ukrainian names of regions and cities became official.
- 1992: Status of Crimea oblast changed to autonomous republic.
Other names of subdivisions:
During the Soviet era, the Russian names were considered standard. Now, the Ukrainian language
is official. Both languages are written in the Cyrillic alphabet, but they use certain individual
letters that are different. Their transliterations into the Roman alphabet are also different. To
compound the confusion, in Ukrainian or Russian, the name is usually given in adjective form,
followed by the generic (usually Oblast'). For example, Chernihiv would be Chernigovskaya Oblast'
in Russian, Chernihivs'ka Oblast' in Ukrainian; its capital is Chernigov or Chernihiv,
respectively. Kyyiv is now the preferred English name for the capital, but the Russian-based
spelling, Kiev, is still well established.
- Cherkasy: Cherkas'ka Oblast' (Ukrainian); Черкасская
область, Черкассы (Russian)
- Chernihiv: Tschernigow (German); Черниговская
- Chernivtsi: Chernivets'ka Oblast' (Ukrainian); Czernowitz, Tschernowzy (German); Tchernovtsy (French);
- Crimea: Crimée (French); Criméia (Portuguese); Krim (German); Respublika Krym (Ukrainian);
- Dnipropetrovs'k: Dniepropietrovsk (variant); Dnjepropetrowsk (German);
- Donets'k: Donezk (German, Italian); Stalino (obsolete); Донецкая
- Ivano-Frankivs'k: Stanislav (obsolete); Ивано-Франковск,
- Kharkiv: Charkow (German); Harkova (Finnish); Jarkov (Spanish); Karkov (Italian); Kharkov (variant);
- Kherson: Cherson (German); Khersons'ka Oblast' (Ukrainian); Херсонская
- Khmel'nyts'kyy: Chmelnizkij (German); Hmelnicki (variant); Kamenets-Podol'skaya Oblast' (obsolete);
Khmel'nyts'ka Oblast', Khmel'nyts'kyi (Ukrainian); Хмельницкая
- Kiev: Kiew, Kijew (German); Kiiv, Kijev, Kiyev, Kyiv, Kyjiv, Kyyiv (variant); Kiova (Finnish);
Kyyivs'ka Oblast' (Ukrainian); Киевская
- Kiev City: Kyïvs'ka mis'ka rada, Misto Kyyiv (Ukrainian); Киев (Russian)
- Kirovohrad: ; Кировоградская
- L'viv: Lemberg (obsolete); Llvov (Spanish); Lwow (German); L'vivs'ka Oblast' (Ukrainian);
- Luhans'k: Luhans'ka Oblast' (Ukrainian); Voroshilovgrad (obsolete); Луганская
- Mykolayiv: Mykolaiv (variant); Nikolajew (German); Николаевская
- Odessa: Odesa, Odes'ka Oblast' (Ukrainian); Одесса,
Одесская область (Russian)
- Poltava: Полтава, Полтавская
- Rivne: Rivnens'ka Oblast' (Ukrainian); Ровенская
область, Ровно (Russian)
- Sevastopol' City: Misto Sevastopol', Sevastopol's'ka mis'ka rada (Ukrainian); Sebastopol (variant);
Sebastopoli (Italian); Sewastopol (German); Севастополь
- Sumy: Сумы, Сумская
- Ternopil': ; Тернопольская
- Transcarpathia: Ruthenia (obsolete); Zakarpats'ka Oblast', Zakarpattia (Ukrainian);
- Vinnytsya: Vinnytsia, Vinnyts'ka Oblast' (Ukrainian); Winniza (German); Винница,
Винницкая область (Russian)
- Volyn: Volhynia (variant); Volyns'ka Oblast' (Ukrainian); Wolynien (German);
Волынская область (Russian)
- Zaporizhzhya: Saporoshje (German); Zaporizhia, Zaporiz'ka Oblast' (Ukrainian);
Zaporojie (French); Zaporožje (variant); Запорожская
область, Запорожье (Russian)
- Zhytomyr: Jitomir (French); Shitomir (German); Житомирская
-  Kubijovyč, Volodomyr, ed., Ukraine: a Concise Encyclopedia. University of Toronto Press, 1963.