Municipalities of Macedonia

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Updates: 

"Geopolitical Entities, Names, and Codes, Edition 2" (GENC), a U.S. standard that's supposed to correspond to ISO 3166-2, was issued on 2014-03-31. It uses the same codes as ISO, except that it deletes the entries for Aerodrom, Butel, Centar, Čair, Gazi Baba, Gjorče Petrov, Karpoš, Kisela Voda, Saraj, Šuto Orizari, Drugovo, Oslomej, Vraneštica, and Zajas, and replaces them with Skopje, code MK-85. Note that the first ten are the same as the ones identified as Greater Skopje in the table below.

Update 12 to "Geopolitical Entities and Codes" (GEC) is dated 2013-06-30. It changes the name of Češinovo to Češinovo-Obleševo, which was already shown on this page. It also combines fourteen municipalities into one, Skopje (FIPS code MKF6). The merged municipalities are the ones marked with an asterisk in the main table below, along with Drugovo, Oslomej, Vraneštica, and Zajas.

Update 10 to GEC is dated 2012-12-31. It assigns a code to Kruševo, which had lacked one.

ISO 3166-2 Newsletter II-3 is dated 2011-12-15. It merely changes the sort order of the divisions of Macedonia.

Before 2010-04, the equivalent of the GEC standard was FIPS PUB 10-4. It listed codes for 83 of the 84 current municipalities in Macedonia. However, the code MKF2 was used for two entries, Aerodrom and Vinitsa. Update 4 to that standard was issued on 2011-04-30. It corrected the error by raising the last three codes in sequence to the next higher number.

ISO 3166-2 Newsletter Number I-9 was published on 2007-11-28. It assigns numeric ISO codes to the municipalities, superseding the former alphabetic codes. The old codes were the same as the HASC codes listed below, with hyphens rather than periods as delimiters.

ISO 3166-2 Newsletter I-8, published on 2007-04-17, has ISO codes for the municipalities of Macedonia. They can all be deduced from the HASC codes.

FIPS 10-4 Change Notice 11, dated 2006-07-11, has dropped "The Former Republic of" from the name of the country. According to FIPS, it is now simply Macedonia.

Change Notice 7 to FIPS PUB 10-4 is dated 2002-01-10. It assigns FIPS codes to the 123 municipalities of Macedonia (see Change history). These are the divisions that were enacted in 1996-09.

In 1999, the CIA World Factbook had a list of municipalities for Macedonia which was similar to the pre-1996 list shown in "Administrative Subdivisions of Countries". The differences were that the Factbook used the name Murgaševo instead of Demir Hisar (the same place), and replaced Skopje with Skopje-Centar, Skopje-Cair, Skopje-Karpos, Skopje-Kisela Voda, and Skopje-Gazi Baba.

Country overview: 

Short nameMACEDONIA
ISO codeMK
FIPS codeMK
LanguageMacedonian (mk)
Time zone+1 ~
CapitalSkopje

 

The territory now constituting "the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia" was part of the Ottoman Empire in 1900. By the Bucharest Peace Treaty of 1913-08-10, Serbia acquired the territory (except for a small area around Strumica, which was part of Bulgaria until World War I). Serbia, with Macedonia, became part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes on 1918-12-04. This kingdom was soon being called Yugoslavia, although the name didn't become official until 1929. Macedonia became one of the six constituent republics of Yugoslavia under the constitution of 1945. It declared independence from Yugoslavia on 1991-01-25. International recognition came slowly, primarily because Greece objected to its use of the name Macedonia. On 1995-09-13, Greece and Macedonia agreed to normalize relations.

Other names of country: 

  1. Danish: Makedonien, Den Tidligere Jugoslaviske Republik Makedonien (formal)
  2. Dutch: Macedonië, Republiek Macedonië (formal)
  3. English: the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (formal), FYROM (informal)
  4. Finnish: Makedonia, Entisen Jugoslavian tasavalta Makedonia (formal)
  5. French: Macédoine, Ex-République f Yougoslave de Macédoine f (formal)
  6. German: Mazedonien, Ehemalige jugoslawische Republik f Mazedonien n (formal)
  7. Icelandic: Makedónía
  8. Italian: Macedonia f
  9. Macedonian: Republika Makedonija (formal)
  10. Norwegian: Den tidligere jugolaviske republikk Makedonia (formal) (Bokmål), Den tidligere jugoslaviske republikken Makedonia (formal) (Nynorsk), Makedonia
  11. Portuguese: Macedónia, Macedônia (Brazil), Antíga República f Jugoslava da Macedónia f (formal), Antíga República Iugoslava da Macedônia f (formal) (Brazil)
  12. Russian: Бывшая Югославская Республика Македония (formal)
  13. Spanish: Macedonia, la ex República f Yugoslava de Macedonia f (formal), Antigua República Yugoslava de Macedonia (formal)
  14. Swedish: Makedonien
  15. Turkish: Makedonya Eski Yugoslav Cumhuriyeti (formal)

Origin of name: 

from ethnic name Makedon, probably related to Ancient Greek makednos: extended, broad

Primary subdivisions: 

Macedonia is divided into 84 opštini (sing. opština: municipalities).

Municipality HASC ISO FIPS Population Area(km.²)
Aerodrom * MK.AD01MKF3 72,009
Aračinovo MK.AR02MK01 11,597 38
Berovo MK.BR03MK04 13,941 597
Bitola MK.TL04MK06 95,385 790
Bogdanci MK.BG05MK08 8,707 114
Bogovinje MK.VJ06MKC7 28,997 141
Bosilovo MK.BS07MK11 14,260 143
Brvenica MK.BN08MK12 15,855 164
Butel * MK.BU09MKF4 36,154
Centar * MK.CE77MKD1 45,412 9
Centar Župa MK.CZ78MK18 6,519 107
Čair * MK.CI79MKC8 64,773 53
Čaška MK.CA80MKC9 7,673 727
Češinovo-ObleševoMK.CH81MK19 7,490 133
Čučer Sandevo MK.CS82MK20 8,493 215
Debar MK.DB21MKD2 19,542 85
Debartsa MK.DA22MKF5 5,507 423
Delčevo MK.DL23MK22 17,505 423
Demir Hisar MK.DM25MKD3 9,497 480
Demir Kapija MK.DK24MK25 4,545 312
Dojran MK.SD26MKE5 3,426 129
Dolneni MK.DE27MK28 13,568 418
Drugovo MK.DR28MK30 3,249 383
Gazi Baba * MK.GB17MK32 72,617 92
Gevgelija MK.GV18MK33 22,988 484
Gjorče Petrov * MK.GP29MK29 41,634 63
Gostivar MK.GT19MKD4 81,042 375
Gradsko MK.GR20MK35 3,760 291
Ilinden MK.IL34MK36 15,894 97
Jegunovtse MK.JG35MKD5 10,790 174
Karbinci MK.KB37MK40 4,012 231
Karpoš * MK.KX38MK41 59,666 21
Kavadartsi MK.AV36MKD6 38,741 998
Kičevo MK.KH40MK43 30,138 48
Kisela Voda * MK.VD39MK44 57,236 43
Kočani MK.OC42MK46 38,092 357
Konče MK.KN41MK47 3,536 233
Kratovo MK.KY43MK51 10,441 375
Kriva Palanka MK.KZ44MK52 20,820 482
Krivogaštani MK.KG45MK53 6,150 88
Kruševo MK.KS46MK54 9,684 190
Kumanovo MK.UM47MKD7 105,484 432
Lipkovo MK.LI48MK59 27,058 270
Lozovo MK.LO49MK60 2,858 166
Makedonska Kamenica MK.MK51MK62 8,110 189
Makedonski Brod MK.MD52MKD8 7,141 875
Mavrovo and Rostuša MK.MR50MKE4 8,618 856
Mogila MK.MG53MKD9 6,710 255
Negotino MK.NG54MK69 19,212 414
Novatsi MK.NV55MKE1 3,549 755
Novo Selo MK.NS56MK72 11,567 257
Ohrid MK.OD58MKE2 55,749 392
Oslomej MK.OS57MK77 10,420 137
Pehčevo MK.PH60MK78 5,517 208
Petrovec MK.PE59MK79 8,255 222
Plasnica MK.PN61MK80 4,545 54
Prilep MK.PP62MKE3 76,768 1,198
Probištip MK.PT63MK83 16,193 326
Radoviš MK.RV64MK84 28,244 502
Rankovce MK.RN65MK85 4,144 240
Resen MK.RE66MK86 16,825 549
Rosoman MK.RM67MK87 4,141 133
Saraj * MK.AJ68MK90 35,408 230
Štip MK.ST83MK98 47,796 583
Šuto Orizari * MK.SO84MKA3 22,017 6
Sopište MK.SS70MK92 5,656 223
Staro Nagoričane MK.NA71MK97 4,840 515
Struga MK.UG72MKE6 63,376 469
Strumitsa MK.RU73MKE7 54,676 311
Studeničani MK.SU74MKA2 17,246 276
Sveti Nikole MK.SL69MKA4 18,497 483
Tearce MK.TR75MKA5 22,454 137
Tetovo MK.ET76MKE8 86,580 262
Valandovo MK.VA10MKE9 11,890 331
Vasilevo MK.VL11MKA9 12,122 231
Veles MK.VE13MKF1 55,108 518
Vevčani MK.VV12MKB3 2,433 35
Vinitsa MK.NI14MKF2 19,938 432
Vraneštica MK.VC15MKB6 1,322 109
Vrapčište MK.VH16MKB7 25,399 157
Zajas MK.ZA31MKC1 11,605 161
Zelenikovo MK.ZK32MKC2 4,077 177
Želino MK.ZE30MKC3 24,390 201
Zrnovci MK.ZR33MKC6 3,264 52
84 municipalities 2,022,54725,713
  • Municipality: The ten municipalities marked
    with an asterisk constitute Greater Skopje.
  • HASC: Hierarchical administrative subdivision codes.
  • ISO: Codes from ISO 3166-2
  • FIPS: "Geopolitical Entities and Codes."
  • Population: 2002-10-31 census.
  • Area: Calculated by adding areas of components.

Postal codes: 

When Macedonia first gained independence from Yugoslavia, it continued to use the old Yugoslav postal codes. They were five digits, and for locations in Macedonia, the first digit was 9. More recently, Macedonia has begun to use four-digit postal codes. For international mail, especially from Europe, it is optional to prefix the postal code with MK- or MAK-.

Further subdivisions:

  1. In 1968, Skopje commune is shown divided into three parts: Idadija, Kale, and Kisela Voda.
  2. In 1994, Skopje municipality is shown divided into five parts: Čair, Centar, Gazi Baba, Karpoš, and Kisela Voda.

Change history: 

  1. I've made use of the chronology found in source [7].
  2. The territory of Macedonia was parts of the Turkish provinces of Kosovo, Monastir, and Saloniki before 1913. From 1918 to 1945 it was part of Serbia within Yugoslavia.
  3. 1945: Macedonia became a republic of Yugoslavia, subdivided into the kotari (regions) of Bitola, Kumanovo, Ohrid, Skopje, Štip, Tetovo, and Titov Veles. The Ministry site disagrees. It says that by a 1945 law, Macedonia was divided into four okruzi (regions), 32 okolii, and 894 local people's committees.
  4. 1952-1955: Regions abolished and replaced by opštini (communes).
  5. 1952: Number of opshtini retuced from 223 to 86, and of okolii from 18 to 7.
  6. 1957: Number of opshtini reduced to 73.
  7. 1965: New law reduced the number of opshtini to 32, and abolished the okolii.
  8. 1976: Macedonia had 34 opshtini, including Centar, Čair, Gazi Baba, Karpoš, and Kisela Voda. The latter five, considered as a unit, formed Skopje City, which had the special status of opshtini-like political union (opštestveno-politička zaednica).
Commune HASC Population Area(km.²) Area(mi.²)
Berovo MK.BV19,737 807 312
Bitola MK.BT106,012 1,699 656
Brod MK.BD10,912 924 357
Debar MK.DB26,449 264 102
Delčevo MK.DC25,052 585 226
Demir Hisar MK.DH10,321 431 166
Gevgelija MK.GG34,767 757 292
Gostivar MK.GS108,189 1,356 524
Kavadarci MK.KA41,801 1,134 438
Kičevo MK.KI53,044 852 329
Kočani MK.KO48,105 571 220
Kratovo MK.KY10,855 376 145
Kriva Palanka MK.KP25,112 720 278
Kruševo MK.KR11,981 201 78
Kumanovo MK.KU126,543 1,190 459
Negotino MK.NE23,094 736 284
Ohrid MK.OH60,841 1,031 398
Prilep MK.PL93,248 1,824 704
ProbištipMK.PS16,375 326 126
Radoviš MK.RA30,375 736 284
Resen MK.RE17,467 739 285
Skopje MK.SK541,280 1,840 710
Štip MK.SP50,531 810 313
Struga MK.SG62,305 541 209
Strumica MK.SM89,759 953 368
Sveti Nikole MK.SN21,391 645 249
Tetovo MK.TE174,748 1,080 417
Titov Veles MK.TV65,523 1,536 593
Valandovo MK.VA12,049 331 128
Vinica MK.VI19,010 438 169
30 communes 1,936,87625,4339,819
  1. Note: In the above table, I originally assigned Kratovo a HASC code of MK.KT. I have changed it to MK.KY because it appears to have the same boundaries as the municipality called Kratovo after 1996.
  2. 1991-11-20: New constitution specified a division into municipalities, equivalent to the former communes, with the City of Skopje as a special unit.
  3. 1996-09: Macedonia reorganized into 123 opštini (sing. opština: municipalities), as shown in the following table, by a Law on Territorial Division.
Municipality HASC FIPS Pop-2002 Pop-1994 Area(km.²)OldNew
Aračinovo MK.ARMK01 11,992 9,960 38SKAR
Bač MK.BAMK02 755 963 238BTNV
Belčišta MK.BEMK03 2,940 3,354 363OHDA
Berovo MK.BRMK04 13,941 14,179 597BVBR
Bistrica MK.BIMK05 5,042 5,779 234BTTL
Bitola MK.BOMK06 86,408 86,176 236BTTL
Blatec MK.BLMK07 2,024 2,005 97VINI
Bogdanci MK.BGMK08 8,707 8,899 114GGBG
Bogomila MK.BMMK09 1,252 1,336 262TVCA
Bogovinje MK.BJMK10 14,555 13,001 71TEVJ
Bosilovo MK.BSMK11 12,457 12,476 143SMBS
Brvenica MK.BNMK12 15,855 14,793 164TEBN
Čair * MK.CRMK13 68,395 63,375 53SKBU,CI
Capari MK.CPMK14 1,424 1,793 164BTTL
Čaška MK.CKMK15 2,878 2,876 231TVCA
Čegrane MK.CGMK16 12,310 11,746 69GSGT
Centar * MK.CEMK17 82,604 85,021 9SKCE
Centar Župa MK.CZMK18 6,299 62,006 107DBCZ
Češinovo MK.CNMK19 2,419 2,540 51KOCH
Čučer-Sandevo MK.CSMK20 8,493 8,064 215SKCS
Debar MK.DBMK21 17,952 175,886 85DBDB
Delčevo MK.DLMK22 17,505 17,726 423DCDL
Delogoždi MK.DGMK23 7,884 6,561 56SGUG
Demir Hisar MK.DXMK24 7,178 7,616 219DHDM
Demir Kapija MK.DKMK25 4,545 4,815 312NEDK
Dobruševo MK.DOMK26 2,174 2,379 98BTMG
Dolna Banjica MK.DJMK27 9,467 7,791 55GSGT
Dolneni MK.DNMK28 11,583 11,705 390PLDE
Ðorče Petrov * MK.GPMK29 41,490 37,961 63SKGP
Drugovo MK.DRMK30 3,249 3,555 383KIDR
DžepčišteMK.DZMK31 7,919 7,286 32TEET
Gazi Baba * MK.GBMK32 72,222 67,664 92SKGB
Gevgelija MK.GEMK33 20,362 19,488 317GGGV
Gostivar MK.GOMK34 49,545 45,740 50GSGT
Gradsko MK.GRMK35 3,760 3,822 291TVGR
Ilinden MK.ILMK36 15,894 14,512 97SKIL
Izvor MK.IZMK37 1,049 1,157 234TVCA
Jegunovce MK.JEMK38 7,227 7,013 78TEJG
Kamenjane MK.KJMK39 14,442 12,136 70TEVJ
Karbinci MK.KBMK40 4,012 4,342 231SPKB
Karpoš * MK.KXMK41 59,810 58,359 21SKKX
Kavadarci MK.KDMK42 38,391 37,189 392KAAV
Kičevo MK.KHMK43 30,138 27,543 48KIKH
Kisela Voda * MK.KVMK44125,379 118,079 43SKAD,VD
Klečevce MK.KLMK45 1,609 2,162 164KUNA
Kočani MK.KCMK46 33,689 32,051 229KOOC
Konče MK.KNMK47 3,536 3,713 233RAKN
Kondovo MK.KWMK48 11,155 9,840 74SKAJ
Konopište MK.KFMK49 350 510 606KAAV
Kosel MK.KEMK50 1,369 1,759 182OHOD
Kratovo MK.KYMK51 10,441 10,898 375KYKY
Kriva Palanka MK.KZMK52 20,820 20,782 482KPKZ
Krivogaštani MK.KGMK53 6,007 6,312 88PLKG
Kruševo MK.KSMK54 9,684 9,821 190KRKS
Kukliš MK.KKMK55 4,449 4,682 125SMRU
Kukurečani MK.KQMK56 2,511 2,859 156BTTL
Kumanovo MK.KMMK57103,205 94,589 297KUUM
Labuništa MK.LAMK58 8,935 9,312 57SGUG
Lipkovo MK.LIMK59 27,058 24,351 270KULI
Lozovo MK.LOMK60 2,858 2,916 166SNLO
Lukovo MK.LUMK61 1,509 1,932 197SGUG
Makedonska Kamenica MK.MKMK62 8,110 8,084 189DCMK
Makedonski Brod MK.MBMK63 5,588 5,517 403BDMD
Mavrovi Anovi MK.MAMK64 984 1,349 484GSMR
Mešeišta MK.MEMK65 2,567 2,918 60OHDA
Miravci MK.MIMK66 2,626 2,779 167GGGV
Mogila MK.MOMK67 4,536 4,954 157BTMG
Murtino MK.MUMK68 6,544 6,230 52SMRU
Negotino MK.NGMK69 19,212 18,341 414NENG
Negotino-Pološko MK.NPMK70 16,813 14,992 98GSVH
Novaci MK.NOMK71 2,478 2,844 186BTNV
Novo Selo MK.NSMK72 11,966 12,382 257SMNS
Obleševo MK.OBMK73 5,071 5,356 82KOCH
Ohrid MK.OXMK74 54,380 52,732 210OHOD
Orašac MK.ORMK75 1,252 1,638 135KUUM
Orizari MK.OZMK76 4,403 4,724 128KOOC
Oslomej MK.OSMK77 10,425 9,170 137KIOS
Pehčevo MK.PHMK78 5,517 5,650 208BVPH
Petrovec MK.PEMK79 8,255 8,123 222SKPE
Plasnica MK.PNMK80 4,545 4,449 54BDPN
Podareš MK.POMK81 3,746 3,669 128RARV
Prilep MK.PRMK82 73,351 71,899 544PLPP
Probištip MK.PBMK83 12,765 12,963 205PSPT
Radoviš MK.RDMK84 24,498 23,143 374RARV
Rankovce MK.RNMK85 4,144 4,347 240KPRN
Resen MK.REMK86 16,825 17,681 549RERE
Rosoman MK.RMMK87 4,141 4,238 133KARM
Rostuša MK.RTMK88 9,451 10,366 372GSMR
Samokov MK.SAMK89 1,553 2,057 472BDMD
Saraj MK.SJMK90 24,253 21,302 156SKAJ
Šipkovica MK.SIMK91 7,820 6,797 145TEET
Sopište MK.SSMK92 9,522 9,684 223SKSS
Sopotnica MK.SCMK93 2,319 2,994 261DHDM
Srbinovo MK.SBMK94 3,709 3,951 112GSGT
Staravina MK.SVMK95 316 456 331BTNV
Star Dojran MK.SDMK96 3,426 3,651 129GGSD
Staro Nagoričane MK.SEMK97 4,258 5,074 351KUNA
Štip MK.STMK98 47,796 46,372 583SPST
Struga MK.SQMK99 36,892 35,509 136SGUG
Strumica MK.SRMKA1 45,087 43,868 134SMRU
Studeničani MK.SUMKA2 17,246 14,747 276SKSU
Šuto Orizari * MK.SOMKA3 17,357 14,301 6SKSO
Sveti Nikole MK.SLMKA4 18,497 18,528 483SNSL
Tearce MK.TRMKA5 22,454 20,797 137TETR
Tetovo MK.TTMKA6 70,841 65,318 85TEET
Topolčani MK.TOMKA7 2,923 3,385 159PLPP
Valandovo MK.VAMKA8 11,890 12,092 331VAVA
Vasilevo MK.VLMKA9 12,122 11,409 231SMVL
Veles MK.VEMKB1 57,602 56,751 518TVVE
Velešta MK.VSMKB2 8,156 6,917 23SGUG
Vevčani MK.VVMKB3 2,433 2,448 35SGVV
Vinica MK.VNMKB4 17,914 17,058 335VINI
Vitolište MK.VTMKB5 494 882 495PLPP
Vraneštica MK.VCMKB6 1,322 1,650 109KIVC
Vrapčište MK.VPMKB7 8,586 8,416 59GSVH
Vratnica MK.VRMKB8 3,563 3,270 96TEJG
Vrutok MK.VKMKB9 5,999 5,460 89GSGT
Zajas MK.ZAMKC1 11,605 10,055 161KIZA
Zelenikovo MK.ZKMKC2 4,077 4,236 177SKZK
Želino MK.ZEMKC3 24,390 21,760 201TEZE
Žitoše MK.ZIMKC4 2,128 2,116 28KRDE
Zletovo MK.ZLMKC5 3,428 3,687 121PSPT
Zrnovci MK.ZRMKC6 3,264 3,344 52KOZR
123 municipalities 2,022,5471,945,93225,713
  • Municipality: The seven municipalities marked with an asterisk constitute
    Greater Skopje.
  • HASC: Hierarchical administrative subdivision codes.
  • FIPS: Codes from FIPS PUB 10-4.
  • Pop-1994: 1994-06-20 census (source [9]).
  • Pop-2002: 2002-10-31 census.
  • Old: Pre-1996 municipality from which this division was taken (end of HASC).
  • New: Post-2004 municipality to which this division belongs (end of HASC).
  1. This Macedonian government webpage , and its Macedonian language version , list the country divisions at NUTS levels 3, 4, and 5. The NUTS-3 divisions are eight arbitrary statistical regions. The NUTS-4 divisions are the same as the thirty communes from the period before 1996, except that Skopje is replaced by five NUTS-4 divisions: Čair, Centar, Gazi Baba, Karpoš, and Kisela Voda. The NUTS-5 divisions are the 123 municipalities. However, these documents don't give the specific NUTS codes used.
  2. 2004-08-11: Law on Territorial Organization passed by Parliament (and published in official gazette on 2004-08-16), reorganizing Macedonia into 84 municipalities, as shown under Primary subdivisions. In most cases, the new municipalities are equal to one or several of the old ones, but Butel municipality was split from Čair and Aerodrom municipality from Kisela Voda.
  3. With one exception, each of the 84 municipalities is a subset of one of the thirty pre-1996 communes. The exception is Dolneni (HASC code MK.DE). It consists of two 1996-2004-era municipalities: Dolneni (MK.DN) and Žitoše (MK.ZI). Going back before 1996, those areas were in Prilep (MK.PL) and Kruševo (MK.KR), respectively.

Other names of subdivisions: 

The Macedonian language is written in the Cyrillic alphabet, so the usual vagaries of transliteration are found. For example, č and š may be transliterated as c and s, or as ch and sh.

  1. Bitola: Bitolia, Monastir (obsolete)
  2. Brod: Makedonska Brod (variant)
  3. Demir Hisar: Murgaševo (variant)
  4. Džepčište: Dzhepishte (variant)
  5. Gevgelija: Djevdjelija (variant)
  6. Gostivar: Kostovo (obsolete)
  7. Ohrid: Ochrida, Okhrida (obsolete)
  8. Skopje: Skopie (Spanish); Skoplie, Üskub, Uskup (obsolete); Skoplje (Dutch, Spanish)
  9. Štip: Ishtip, Istib (obsolete)
  10. Titov Veles: Veles (variant)

Sources: 

  1. [1] Mardešić, Petar, and Zvonimir Dugački. Geografski Atlas Jugoslavije. Zagreb: Znanje, 1961.
  2. [2] Mardešić, Petar, and Oto Oppitz. Jugoslavenski Leksikografski Zavod. Zagreb, 1969.
  3. [3] Territory and Administration in Europe. Robert Bennett, ed. Pinter Publishers, London and New York, 1989.
  4. [4] Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States 1992. Europa Publications Ltd., London, 1992.
  5. [5] A UNEP report  on pollution in Macedonia contains several maps showing 29 "counties" (the pre-1996 divisions). The clearest is on page 40. Note: the missing county, Valandovo, is in the northeast part of Gevgelija. (Retrieved 2009-12-21; in Macedonian.)
  6. [6] The Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in the Republic of Macedonia, 2002 - Book XIII , on the State Statistical Office website, lists 84 municipalities, and has a map of municipalities (page 7). (Retrieved 2009-12-21; bilingual.)
  7. [7] Territorial chronology, Ministry of Local Government, http://www.mls.gov.mk/default.asp?id=teritorial (dead link, retrieved 2006-09-08). A copy can be found on the Internet Archive  site. I did my best to translate it from Macedonian. It lacks substantiating details, so there is no good way to settle discrepancies between the Ministry's information and other sources.
  8. [8] "Ershiyi (21) Shiji Shijie Diming Lu". Beijing, 2001.
  9. [9] Ministry of Local Self-Government ). The figures shown in this source don't add up to the total given.
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