Prefectures of Japan

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Updates: 

I've added population figures from the 2010 census.

Update 10 to Geopolitical Entities and Codes (formerly FIPS 10-4) is dated 2012-12-31. All it does for Japan is add a macron to the final "o" of Hokkaido.

Country overview: 

Short nameJAPAN
ISO codeJP
FIPS codeJA
LanguageJapanese (ja)
Time zone+9
CapitalTokyo

 

In 1900, Japan consisted of its present territory plus two major components. Taiwan, then more often called Formosa, with the Pescadores Islands, had been conquered from China and made a Japanese colony in 1895. The Kuril Islands, known to the Japanese as Chishima, had been annexed from Russia in 1875. Japan acquired additional lands as a result of the Russo-Japanese war of 1905: the southern half of Sakhalin Island (Karafuto in Japanese), the Kwantung peninsula, and other strongholds in Manchuria. Korea became a Japanese protectorate in 1905-12, then a colony on 1910-08-22. In 1920, by the terms of the Treaty of Versailles, Japan picked up the former German islands of Micronesia, making them its territory of Nanyo. In 1931, it invaded Manchuria, and set up the puppet state of Manchukuo there the following year. As World War II drew near and broke out, Japan extended its military occupation to much of the Far East and the Pacific. When the war ended in 1945, all of these conquests were taken from Japan, and restored, as far as possible, to their former status. Some of the islands in the southern chains, notably Okinawa, were placed under U.S. military administration, but later reintegrated into Japan. Nanyo became a trust territory of the United States on 1947-04-02. Japan still asserts its claim to the southern Kuril Islands, including Etorofu, Kunashiri, Shikotan, Shibotsu, and Suisho, which have been administratively part of Russia since the war's end.

Spelling note: Although several different transliteration methods have been used to convert from Japanese characters to the Roman alphabet, there is a surprising degree of unanimity about the Romanized form of Japanese place names, even in the other languages covered here. In some references, macrons are used to indicate long vowels. ISO standard 3166-2 is an exception; it uses a different transliteration method (and uses circumflex accents instead of macrons). Names as shown by ISO will be found under "Other names of subdivisions". (ISO also appends the generic -Ken, -Do, -Fu, or -To to the prefecture name, as in Aichi-Ken or Osaka-Fu. This form often appears in postal addresses, too.)

Other names of country: 

  1. Danish: Japan
  2. Dutch: Japan
  3. Finnish: Japani
  4. French: Japon m
  5. German: Japan n
  6. Icelandic: Japan
  7. Italian: Giappone m
  8. Japanese: Nihon (formal), Nippon (formal)
  9. Norwegian: Japan
  10. Portuguese: Japão m
  11. Russian: Япония
  12. Spanish: Japón m
  13. Swedish: Japan
  14. Turkish: Japonya (formal)

Origin of name: 

Chinese ri: sun, ben: origin (i.e. land of the rising sun)

Primary subdivisions: 

Japan is divided into 43 ken (prefectures), one to (metropolis - Tokyo), one do (territory - Hokkaido), and two fu (urban prefectures - Kyoto and Osaka). The four words are combined in one, todofuken, to denote a division of any type.

PrefectureHASCISOFIPSPopulationArea(km.²)Area(mi.²)RegionCapital
AichiJP.AI23JA017,410,7195,1051,971ChubuNagoya
AkitaJP.AK05JA021,085,99711,6094,482TohokuAkita
AomoriJP.AO02JA031,373,3399,6143,712TohokuAomori
ChibaJP.CH12JA046,216,2895,1031,970KantoChiba
EhimeJP.EH38JA051,431,4935,6642,187ShikokuMatsuyama
FukuiJP.FI18JA06806,3144,1881,617ChubuFukui
FukuokaJP.FO40JA075,071,9684,9341,905KyushuFukuoka
FukushimaJP.FS07JA082,029,06413,7815,321TohokuFukushima
GifuJP.GF21JA092,080,77310,5964,091ChubuGifu
GummaJP.GM10JA102,008,0686,3562,454KantoMaebashi
HiroshimaJP.HS34JA112,860,7508,4533,264ChugokuHiroshima
HokkaidoJP.HK01JA125,506,41978,51530,315HokkaidoSapporo
HyogoJP.HG28JA135,588,1338,3623,229KinkiKobe
IbarakiJP.IB08JA142,969,7706,0872,350KantoMito
IshikawaJP.IS17JA151,169,7884,1961,620ChubuKanazawa
IwateJP.IW03JA161,330,14715,2775,898TohokuMorioka
KagawaJP.KG37JA17995,8421,877725ShikokuTakamatsu
KagoshimaJP.KS46JA181,706,2429,1493,532KyushuKagoshima
KanagawaJP.KN14JA199,048,3312,384920KantoYokohama
KochiJP.KC39JA20764,4567,1062,744ShikokuKochi
KumamotoJP.KM43JA211,817,4267,3832,851KyushuKumamoto
KyotoJP.KY26JA222,636,0924,6121,781KinkiKyoto
MieJP.ME24JA231,854,7245,7742,229KinkiTsu
MiyagiJP.MG04JA242,348,1657,2882,814TohokuSendai
MiyazakiJP.MZ45JA251,135,2337,7342,986KyushuMiyazaki
NaganoJP.NN20JA262,152,44913,5855,245ChubuNagano
NagasakiJP.NS42JA271,426,7794,0981,582KyushuNagasaki
NaraJP.NR29JA281,400,7283,6921,425KinkiNara
NiigataJP.NI15JA292,374,45012,5774,856ChubuNiigata
OitaJP.OT44JA301,196,5296,3312,444KyushuOita
OkayamaJP.OY33JA311,945,2767,0792,733ChugokuOkayama
OkinawaJP.ON47JA471,392,8182,244866RyukyuNaha
OsakaJP.OS27JA328,865,2451,845712KinkiOsaka
SagaJP.SG41JA33849,7882,416933KyushuSaga
SaitamaJP.ST11JA347,194,5563,7991,467KantoSaitama
ShigaJP.SH25JA351,410,7774,0161,551KinkiOtsu
ShimaneJP.SM32JA36717,3976,6272,559ChugokuMatsue
ShizuokaJP.SZ22JA373,765,0077,7703,000ChubuShizuoka
TochigiJP.TC09JA382,007,6836,4142,476KantoUtsunomiya
TokushimaJP.TS36JA39785,4914,1441,600ShikokuTokushima
TokyoJP.TK13JA4013,159,3882,145828KantoTokyo
TottoriJP.TT31JA41588,6673,4921,348ChugokuTottori
ToyamaJP.TY16JA421,093,2474,2521,642ChubuToyama
WakayamaJP.WK30JA431,002,1984,7221,823KinkiWakayama
YamagataJP.YT06JA441,168,9249,3253,600TohokuYamagata
YamaguchiJP.YC35JA451,451,3386,0902,351ChugokuYamaguchi
YamanashiJP.YN19JA46863,0754,4631,723ChubuKofu
47 divisions128,057,352372,273143,732
  • ISO: Codes from ISO 3166-2. These codes are used in Japanese government
    publications, which list prefectures sequentially by code. They basically run from
    north to south.
  • FIPS: Codes from FIPS PUB 10-4.
  • Region: The prefectures are grouped into the regions listed below.
  • HASC: Hierarchical administrative subdivision codes.
  • Population: 2010-10-01 census.

 

Regions have no administrative function. Hokkaido, Kyushu, and Shikoku correspond to three of the main islands of Japan. Ryukyu consists of smaller islands in the south. The other five regions correspond to the largest island, Honshu.

RegionPopulationArea(km.²)Chief town
Chubu21,715,82266,732Nagoya
Chugoku7,563,42831,741Hiroshima
Hokkaido5,506,41978,515Sapporo
Kanto42,604,08532,288Tokyo
Kinki22,757,89733,023Osaka
Kyushu13,203,96542,045Fukuoka
Ryukyu1,392,8182,244Naha
Shikoku3,977,28218,791Matsuyama
Tohoku9,335,63666,894Sendai
9 regions128,057,352372,273
  • Population: 2010-10-01 census.

Postal codes: 

Japan uses seven-digit postal codes, with a hyphen between the third and fourth digits. Earlier versions of the current system used only the first three or first five digits.

Further subdivisions:

See the Counties of Japan page.

The prefecture-level units are subdivided into gun (counties), shi (cities), shicho (branch administration), and one "area", which corresponds to the 23 wards of Tokyo.

Alan Pritchard writes that the divisions of Japan are on six levels. He has received some of this information from a Japanese organization, the Council of Local Authorities for International Relations.

On the highest level, below Japan itself, come the 43 ken (prefectures), one to (metropolis), one do (territory), two fu (urban prefectures), and twelve serei shitei toshi (specially designated cities; Saitama's website says that it is now the thirteenth). They are all listed in "Administrative Subdivisions of Countries" except for the specially designated cities, which are commonly grouped with the prefectures in which they are located. The Japanese word for the type of division is normally suffixed to the name of the division, e.g., "Aomori-ken".

On the second level are gun (counties) and shi (cities). The counties have no administrative function. They are groups of rural municipalities that are used for postal purposes. Each prefecture is completely subdivided into counties and cities.

On the third level are shi (cities), machi and cho (both translated as towns), mura and son (villages), and ku (wards; in Tokyo only). I have seen it stated that the name Tokyo doesn't represent a city, but only a prefecture (Tokyo-to). Japanese use the phrase "the twenty-three wards" to refer to what outsiders think of as the city of Tokyo. Each of these wards has its own local administrations, similar to a city's. "Municipalities" is a generic term comprehending cities, towns, and villages.

On the fourth level are ku (wards) outside of Tokyo. I assume that these are divisions of cities, and not found in towns or villages.

The fifth level includes machi and cho. In some cases, machi and cho on the fifth level are subdivisions of machi and cho on the third level. If my understanding is correct, the fourth-level wards and the fifth-level machi and cho are mutually exclusive, so it would also make sense to combine them into a single level.

Finally, on the sixth level are chome (districts). Most of them are numbered rather than named: 3-chome, etc.

This account omits the nine regions, which are groups of prefectures, but don't have any administrative function.

Territorial extent: 

Each prefecture except Okinawa lies mainly on one of the four large islands: Hokkaido, Honshu, Kyushu, and Shikoku. (The island locale of each prefecture can be deduced from the region column above.) Most prefectures also contain some smaller islands. This list shows these additional islands roughly in decreasing order of size. ('Island' may be represented by -shima, -jima, or -to.)

  1. Aichi: Saku-shima, Shino-shima, Himaga-shima
  2. Aomori: Kyuroku-jima
  3. Ehime: Omi-shima, O-shima, Naka-jima, Hakata-jima, Nuwa-jima, Gogo-shima, Hiburi-shima, Uo-shima, Shisaka-jima
  4. Fukuoka: O-shima, Jino-shima, Aino-shima
  5. Hiroshima: Eta-jima, Kurahashi-jima, Osaki-kami-jima, Itsuku-shima, Inno-shima, Ikuchi-shima, Osaki-shimo-jima, Hashiri-jima
  6. Hokkaido: Okushiri-shima, Rishiri-to, Rebun-to, O-shima, Ko-jima
  7. Hyogo: Awaji-shima, Nu-shima, and the Ieshima-shoto group
  8. Ishikawa: Noto-jima, Hekura-jima, and the Nanatsu-shima group
  9. Kagawa: Shodo-shima, Te-shima, Hiro-shima, Hon-jima, Nao-shima (part), Awa-shima, Megi-jima, Ibuki-jima
  10. Kagoshima: Amami-o-shima, Yaku-jima, Tanega-shima, Tokuno-shima, Koshikijima Retto (including Kamikoshiki-jima and Shimokoshiki-jima), Okino-erabu-shima, Naga-shima, Shishi-jima, Kikai-shima, Yoron-jima, and other islands of the Satsunan-shoto group
  11. Kochi: Okino-shima, Uguru-shima
  12. Kumamoto: Amakusa-shoto group
  13. Mie: Toshi-jima, Suga-jima, Kami-shima
  14. Miyagi: Kinkazan-to, Aji-shima, Miyato-shima, Tashiro-jima
  15. Miyazaki: Shimaura-to
  16. Nagasaki: Tsu-shima (actually two main islands), Fukue-jima, Nakadori-jima, Iki-shima, Hirado-shima, Azuchi-oshima, and other islands of the Goto Retto group
  17. Niigata: Sado-shima, Awa-shima
  18. Oita: Hime-shima, Onyu-jima, Muku-shima, Hoto-jima, Fuka-shima
  19. Okayama: Kono-shima, Kitagi-shima, Kakui-shima, Naga-shima, Nao-shima (part)
  20. Okinawa consists of the Okinawa-shoto group. It includes several smaller groups, such as Sakishima-shoto, Senkaku-shoto, and Daito-shoto (Borodino Islands). Some of the larger islands are Okinawa-jima, Miyako-jima, Iriomote-jima, Ishigaki-jima, Kume-jima, and Iheya-jima. The most remote are Yonaguni-jima in the west and Okidaito-jima in the southeast. The name Ryukyu Islands, or Nansei-shoto, encompasses both Okinawa and Satsunan-shoto, the islands of Kagoshima prefecture.
  21. Saga: Madara-shima, Kakara-shima
  22. Shimane: Okino-Shima (the Oki Islands), consisting of Dogo and Dozen, where Dozen in turn consists of Nishino-shima, Nakano-shima, and Chiburi-jima; also the islands of Yatsuka village, in the inlet of Nakano-umi
  23. Tokushima: Oge-jima, O-shima, I-shima, Ao-shima
  24. Tokyo includes a long string of islands stretching almost due south for about 800 km. Among the largest islands are O-shima, Hachijo-jima, Miyake-jima, Nii-jima, Io-jima (Iwo Jima), and Chichi-jima. Island groups in Tokyo prefecture include Izu-shoto, Ogasawara-gunto (Bonin Islands), and Kazan Retto (Volcano Islands). The most remote islands from the Japanese mainland are Okino-tori-shima (Parece Vela) to the southwest, Minami-iwo-jima to the south, and Minami-tori-shima (Marcus) to the southeast.
  25. Wakayama: O-shima, Chino-shima, Okino-shima; Wakayama also has two exclaves on the border between Mie and Nara, containing the villages of Kitayama and Tamakiguchi.
  26. Yamagata: Tobi-shima
  27. Yamaguchi: Yashiro-jima, Heigun-to, Kasado-shima, Omi-shima, Naga-shima, Otsu-shima, Mi-shima, Muko-shima, Ya-shima, Iwai-shima, Tsuno-shima, Futai-jima, Hashira-jima, Aino-shima, O-shima

Origins of names: 

  1. Akita: Japanese for field of ripe rice
  2. Aomori: Japanese for green forest
  3. Chiba: Japanese for a thousand leaves
  4. Ehime: Japanese ai: to love, hime: princess
  5. Fujisawa: Japanese fuji: wisteria, sawa: valley
  6. Fukui: Japanese fuku: luck, i: good
  7. Fukuoka: Japanese fuku: luck, oka: hill
  8. Fukushima: Japanese fuku: luck, shima: island
  9. Fukuyama: Japanese fuku: luck, yama: mountain
  10. Funabashi: Japanese fune: ship, hashi: bridge (i.e. floating bridge)
  11. Gumma: Japanese gun: group, ma: horse
  12. Hiroshima: Japanese hiro: broad, shima: island
  13. Hokkaido: Japanese hoku: north, kai: sea, do: province
  14. Hyogo: Japanese hyo: army, ko: storehouse
  15. Ibaraki: Japanese ibara: thorn, ki: castle
  16. Ishikawa: Japanese ishi: stone, kawa: river
  17. Iwate: Japanese iwa: rock, te: hand
  18. Kyoto: Japanese for capital
  19. Nagasaki: Japanese naga: long, saki: cape
  20. Tokyo: Japanese to: east, kyo: capital

Change history: 

The division into prefectures dates from 1871, as the Meiji restoration eliminated fiefs.

  1. 1947-07-19: Nanyo became a trust territory of the United States.
  2. 1968-06-26: United States restored the Ogasawara (Bonin), Kazan Retto, Rosario, Parece Vela, and Minami-Tori (Marcus) Islands to Japan.
  3. 1972-05-15: Okinawa restored to Japan, becoming its 47th prefecture.
  4. 2001-05-01: Capital of Saitama prefecture (Urawa) merged with Omiya and Yono, forming the new city Saitama.

Other names of subdivisions: 

  1. Aichi: Aiti (variant)
  2. Chiba: Tiba (variant)
  3. Fukui: Hukui (variant)
  4. Fukuoka: Hukuoka (variant)
  5. Fukushima: Hukusima (variant)
  6. Gifu: Gihu (variant)
  7. Gumma: Gunma (variant)
  8. Hiroshima: Hirosima (variant); Хиросима (Russian)
  9. Hokkaido: Ezo, Yeso, Yezo (obsolete)
  10. Hyogo: Hiogo (variant)
  11. Ishikawa: Isikawa (variant)
  12. Kochi: Koti (variant)
  13. Kyoto: Kioto (variant)
  14. Mie: Miye (variant)
  15. Shiga: Siga (variant)
  16. Shimane: Simane (variant)
  17. Shizuoka: Sizuoka (variant)
  18. Tochigi: Totigi (variant)
  19. Tokushima: Tokusima (variant)
  20. Tokyo: Edo, Yedo (obsolete); Tokio (Spanish, variant); Tóquio (Portuguese); Токио (Russian)
  21. Yamaguchi: Yamaguti (variant)
  22. Yamanashi: Yamanasi (variant)

Population history:

Division18961920193019401950-10-011960-10-011970-10-011980-10-011990-10-012000-10-012010-10-01
Aichi1,557,0002,090,0002,567,0003,166,5923,390,5854,206,0005,386,0006,222,0006,690,4407,043,3007,410,719
Akita755,000899,000988,0001,052,2751,309,0311,336,0001,241,0001,257,0001,227,4911,189,2791,085,997
Aomori593,000756,000880,0001,000,5091,282,8671,427,0001,428,0001,524,0001,482,9351,475,7281,373,339
Chiba1,247,0001,336,0001,470,0001,588,4252,139,0372,306,0003,367,0004,735,0005,555,4675,926,2856,216,289
Ehime972,0001,047,0001,142,0001,178,7051,521,8781,501,0001,418,0001,507,0001,515,0271,493,0921,431,493
Fukui632,000599,000618,000643,904752,374753,000744,000794,000823,595828,944806,314
Fukuoka1,314,0002,188,0002,527,0003,094,1323,530,1694,007,0004,027,0004,553,0004,811,1795,015,6995,071,968
Fukushima1,028,0001,363,0001,508,0001,625,5212,062,3942,051,0001,946,0002,035,0002,104,1192,126,9352,029,064
Gifu981,0001,070,0001,178,0001,265,0241,544,5381,638,0001,759,0001,960,0002,066,5792,107,7002,080,773
Gumma749,0001,053,0001,186,0001,299,0271,601,3801,578,0001,659,0001,849,0001,966,2872,024,8522,008,068
Hiroshima1,400,0001,542,0001,692,0001,869,5042,081,9672,184,0002,436,0002,739,0002,849,8222,878,9152,860,750
Hokkaido508,0002,359,0002,812,0003,272,7184,295,5675,039,0005,184,0005,576,0005,643,7155,683,0625,506,419
Hyogo1,618,0002,302,0002,646,0003,221,2323,309,9353,906,0004,668,0005,145,0005,405,0905,550,5745,588,133
Ibaraki1,101,0001,350,0001,487,0001,620,0002,039,4182,047,0002,144,0002,558,0002,845,4112,985,6762,969,770
Ishikawa782,000747,000757,000757,676957,279973,0001,002,0001,119,0001,164,6271,180,9771,169,788
Iwate701,000846,000976,0001,095,7931,346,7281,449,0001,371,0001,422,0001,416,9601,416,1801,330,147
Kagawa685,000678,000733,000730,394946,022919,000908,0001,000,0001,023,4341,022,890995,842
Kagoshima1,076,0001,416,0001,557,0001,589,4671,804,1181,963,0001,729,0001,785,0001,797,7661,786,1941,706,242
Kanagawa754,0001,323,0001,620,0002,188,9742,487,6653,443,0005,472,0006,924,0007,980,4218,489,9749,048,331
Kochi600,000671,000718,000709,286873,874855,000787,000831,000825,063813,949764,456
Kumamoto1,112,0001,233,0001,354,0001,368,1791,827,5821,856,0001,700,0001,790,0001,840,3831,859,3441,817,426
Kyoto914,0001,287,0001,553,0001,729,9931,832,9341,993,0002,250,0002,527,0002,602,5202,644,3912,636,092
Mie976,0001,069,0001,157,0001,198,7831,461,1971,485,0001,543,0001,687,0001,792,5421,857,3391,854,724
Miyagi817,000962,0001,143,0001,271,2381,663,4421,743,0001,819,0002,082,0002,248,5212,365,3202,348,165
Miyazaki439,000651,000760,000840,3571,091,4271,135,0001,051,0001,152,0001,168,9221,170,0071,135,233
Nagano1,212,0001,563,0001,717,0001,710,7292,060,8311,982,0001,957,0002,084,0002,156,6562,215,1682,152,449
Nagasaki796,0001,136,0001,233,0001,370,0631,645,4921,760,0001,570,0001,591,0001,563,0151,516,5231,426,779
Nara526,000565,000596,000620,509763,883781,000930,0001,209,0001,375,4781,442,7951,400,728
Niigata1,797,0001,776,0001,933,0002,064,4022,460,9972,442,0002,361,0002,451,0002,474,6022,475,7332,374,450
Oita822,000860,000946,000972,9751,252,9991,240,0001,156,0001,229,0001,236,9241,221,1401,196,529
Okayama1,109,0001,218,0001,284,0001,329,3581,661,0991,670,0001,707,0001,871,0001,925,9131,950,8281,945,276
Okinawa440,000572,000578,000574,579915,000883,000945,0001,107,0001,222,4581,318,2201,392,818
Osaka1,280,0002,588,0003,540,0004,792,9663,857,0475,505,0007,620,0008,473,0008,734,6708,805,0818,865,245
Saga602,000674,000692,000701,517945,082943,000838,000866,000877,865876,654849,788
Saitama1,149,0001,320,0001,459,0001,608,0392,146,4452,431,0003,866,0005,420,0006,405,3196,938,0067,194,556
Shiga702,000651,000692,000703,679861,180843,000890,0001,080,0001,222,4011,342,8321,410,777
Shimane713,000715,000740,000740,940912,551889,000774,000785,000781,005761,503717,397
Shizuoka1,173,0001,550,0001,798,0002,017,8602,471,4722,756,0003,090,0003,447,0003,670,8913,767,3933,765,007
Tochigi759,0001,046,0001,142,0001,206,6571,550,4621,514,0001,580,0001,792,0001,935,1862,004,8172,007,683
Tokushima688,000670,000717,000718,717878,511847,000791,000825,000831,582824,108785,491
Tokyo1,468,0003,699,0005,409,0007,354,9716,277,5009,684,00011,408,00011,618,00011,854,98712,064,10113,159,388
Tottori414,000455,000489,000484,390600,177599,000569,000604,000615,741613,289588,667
Toyama789,000724,000779,000822,5691,008,7901,033,0001,030,0001,103,0001,120,1821,120,8511,093,247
Wakayama666,000750,000831,000865,074982,1131,002,0001,043,0001,087,0001,074,3211,069,9121,002,198
Yamagata808,000969,0001,080,0001,119,3381,357,3471,321,0001,226,0001,252,0001,258,4041,244,1471,168,924
Yamaguchi967,0001,041,0001,136,0001,294,2421,540,8821,602,0001,511,0001,587,0001,572,6451,527,9641,451,338
Yamanashi491,000583,000631,000663,026811,369782,000762,000804,000852,980888,172863,075
Total42,682,00055,962,00064,451,00073,114,30884,114,63794,302,000104,663,000117,058,000123,611,541126,925,843128,057,352

 

Data for 1896 are from source [6]. Data for 1920-1990 are from source [1], except that the 1950 census is from source [3]. Source [1] agrees with source [3] when rounded to the nearest 1,000, but source [3] doesn't include Okinawa; therefore, I took the 1950 Okinawa population from source [1], and combined it into the total, which is therefore an approximation. Data for 2000 are from source [5]. Data for 2010 are from source [8], which matches the more official source [7] except that figures in source [7] are rounded to the nearest thousand.

Sources: 

  1. [1] Japan Statistical Yearbook 1992. Statistics Bureau, Management and Coordination Agency.
  2. [2] Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1969 edition. G. & C. Merriam, Springfield, MA, 1969.
  3. [3] Demographic Yearbook , 7th Ed. Statistical Office of the United Nations, New York, 1955 (retrieved 2011-08-20).
  4. [4] Japan Almanac (several editions).
  5. [5] Population Census : First basic statistical results: Summary of results - Main demographic items: major administrative entities (2000). Japanese Statistics Bureau website (retrieved 2004-02-09).
  6. [6] The Century Atlas of the World, Benjamin E. Smith, ed., New York, 1906.
  7. [7] 2010 Census of Japan  (download Excel spreadsheet), Statistics Bureau, Japan (retrieved 2013-09-14).
  8. [8] City Population  website by Thomas Brinkhoff (retrieved 2013-09-14).
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