The Delrio law has brought the regions into more salience at the expense of the provinces. Consequently, I have promoted the regions to primary subdivisions and demoted the provinces to secondary. The Delrio law took effect on 2014-04-08. It provides that the provinces will cease to function on 2015-01-01. Ten of them will be replaced by metropolitan cities with the same territory. The ten are Bari, Bologna, Florence, Genoa, Milan, Naples, Reggio di Calabria, Rome, Turin, and Venice (source ). The change was not implemented in Reggio, and has been delayed in Venice.
There was one potential HASC code conflict. I have been using a code
CI (not part of the HASC system) for Calabria. The HASC
code for Carbonia-Iglesias was
IT.CI. To avoid duplication, when defining HASC codes for the regions, I used
for Calabria. The other region codes remain unchanged.
Gintautas Gaidamavicius sent me a link to a document that seems to be available only on the Internet Archive. Its title is "Circoscrizioni Statistiche", published by Istituto Centrale di Statistica in August 1958. With admirable thoroughness, it divides Italy into 10 regioni statistiche plus Rome, where each statistical region consists of one or more historical regions; 92 province; over 300 settori statistici; perhaps 1,000 regioni agrarie; and the thousands of comuni. Cutting across these are 5 zone altimetriche. It shows clearly how they relate to each other, and gives populations and areas down to the regione agraria level. Do these all still exist? A search for settori statistici nowadays turns up nothing geographic, but only economic sectors. Some provinces, at least, have regioni agrarie. A spot-check of Benevento shows that there are now 6 regioni agrarie in the province as compared to 5 in the 1958 document, but most of them have similar names.
There are some circondari, or unions of communes. As far as I can tell, they fall far short of covering all of Italy. I found no overall plan governing their creation, management, function, or even naming. For example, Wikipedia lists two unions in Genoa province, one with five communes and one with nine. Genoa has 67 communes in all.
The NUTS code scheme was revised in 2003. All codes for Italy that were listed on this page changed. The NUTS-1 level areas, known as gruppi di regioni (groups of regions) were consolidated from eleven groups into five. There was another change in 2010. Because of the transfer of seven communes from Marche to Emilia-Romagna, those regions were given new codes. Because of the hierarchical structure of NUTS, all of their provinces' codes also changed. Other changes resulted from the creation of three new provinces, which took effect in 2009. The new codes are shown in the tables below.
Fabien Antoine pointed out to me that a referendum was held on 2012-05-06 concerning the four Sardinian provinces that were created in 2001. The result was for their abolition, to take effect when a regional law is passed, no later than 2013-03-01. Even more significantly, according to Italy's Metronews website (source ), the Council of Ministers has decided that provinces should have a population of at least 350,000 and an area of at least 2,500 km.². Following those criteria, 66 provinces will have to be abolished; however, 10 of them will become metropolitan cities (città metropolitane), a new status which will apparently be on the same level as the provinces. The deadline for this transformation is 2014-01-01. Later, Le Figaro reported that the legislature has "buried the bill reducing the number of provinces under a rain of 700 amendments" (mixed metaphor in original: source ).
Newsletter II-2, an update to the ISO 3166-2 standard, is dated 2010-06-30. It changes the ISO codes assigned to three of the new provinces, so that province codes and sigle match.
ISO 3166-2 Newsletter number II-1, dated 2010-02-03, adds ISO codes for the most recently-created provinces.
The original ISO 3166-2 Newsletter I-8 was published on 2007-04-17. It had ISO codes for the new provinces of Italy. However, two of them didn't match the provincial sigle. When this was brought to the attention of the maintenance agency, they revised the codes. A corrected version of the newsletter was issued, bearing the same date; I received notification of it on 2007-05-10. (The reason I go into all this detail is that some of my readers may have saved the original newsletter, and may now be wondering why their ISO codes don't match mine.)
Mario Pezza writes that new provinces appear on maps as of the date of the law creating them, but only become active when their first provincial council is elected. Therefore, the provinces of Barletta-Andria-Trani, Fermo, and Monza e Brianza were defined as of 2004-06-11, the date the laws were passed. They became active in 2009-06.
International standard ISO 3166-2 was published on December 15, 1998. It superseded ISO/DIS 3166-2 (draft international standard). For Italy, the draft standard showed 20 regions and ignored the provinces. The final standard shows the same 20 regions with the same codes, but no longer as primary divisions of Italy. Instead, the 103 provinces are shown as the primary subdivisions.
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Italy struggled its way to national unification in the 19th century, except for some Italian-speaking borderlands called Italia irredenta (unredeemed Italy). In World War I, Italy chose the winning side. In reward, it achieved its main territorial ambitions: the incorporation of the South Tyrol and the area around Trieste. After World War II, as a defeated Axis power, it lost part of Trieste, and all of its colonies.
from Vituli, name of a tribe in Apulia
Italy is subdivided into twenty regioni (sing. regione: region). Officially, these are autonomous regions with ordinary statute, except for five autonomous regions with special statute (FV, SC, SD, TT, VD). Regions were known as compartimenti (departments) until World War II.
The regions are subdivided into province (sing. provincia: province). The provinces are further subdivided into comuni (communes). There are also some groups of communes that form an intermediate administrative level, the circondari (districts). When new provinces are formed, sometimes the area of the province is a former circondaro.
NUTS-1 areas, significant only for statistical purposes, are as follows.
|NUTS||NUTS name||Census name|
NUTS-2 areas correspond to regions, with one exception: Trentino-Alto Adige is divided into two NUTS-2 areas.
Provincia Autonoma Bolzano/Bozen and
ITH2 is Provincia Autonoma Trento.
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