Sorin Cosoveanu sent a pdf of the Journal Officiel from which I got the 2003 census data shown herein.
Gabon began the 20th century as part of French Kongo (Congo). On 1910-01-15, it became one of four colonies making up Afrique Équatoriale Française (French Equatorial Africa). When the four gained their independence in a single week, Gabon was the last one, on 1960-08-17.
Portuguese gabão: hooded cloak, named for the shape of the Gabon estuary
Gabon is divided into nine provinces.
See the Departments of Gabon page.
The provinces are further subdivided into 37 départements.
Gabon appears to have a four-corners where Moyen-Ogooué, Ogooué-Ivindo, Ogooué-Lolo, and Ngounié (reading clockwise, starting at the northwest) all meet.
The UN LOCODE page for Gabon lists locations in the country, some of them with their latitudes and longitudes, some with their ISO 3166-2 codes for their subdivisions. This information can be put together to approximate the territorial extent of subdivisions.
The provinces are predominantly named for rivers which flow through them: the Ivindo, Lolo, N'Gounié, Ntem, Nyanga, Ogooué, and Woleu. Haut, Maritime, and Moyen are French for upper, coastal, and middle, respectively.
Estuaire: Named for the Gabon Estuary.
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