I added the 2010 census results.
Valentin Arzoumanian has discovered that Ecuador has a plan afoot to create nine planning zones (zonas de planificación), subdivided into 140 districts (distritos), and further into 1,134 circuits (circuitos). Implementation is scheduled for 2016. The zones are classified as seven regions and two metropolitan districts. The metropolitan districts will be formed from existing cantons (one canton for Quito, three for Guayaquil); the regions will be formed by combining existing provinces, excluding the territory allocated to the metropolitan districts. Most districts will be formed by combining existing cantons, but a few of the most populous cantons will be divided to form districts. Since these are all described as planning entities, it's not entirely clear to me whether the provinces, cantons, and parishes will be abolished, or will remain as administrative divisions alongside the planning divisions. See source  for more information.
Santa Elena and Santo Domingo de los Tsáchilas provinces, created in late 2007, were listed in "Geopolitical Entities and Codes", a successor to FIPS 10-4, which was published in 2010-04. ISO 3166-2 assigned codes to the two new provinces in Newsletter II-2, dated 2010-06-30.
Orellana province, created in 1998, was recognized by Change Notice 6 to FIPS PUB 10-4 (released 2001-01-28) and ISO 3166-2 Newsletter number I-4 (dated 2002-12-10).
|Time zone||-5 (see note)|
Ecuador has been an independent country throughout the whole 20th century. It has also been involved in territorial disputes throughout the century. Provincial borders have undergone extensive changes. Ecuador and Peru have fought repeatedly over disputed territories in the Región Oriental.
Time zone note: The Galapagos Islands are in time zone -6.
Spanish ecuador: equator, from location on equator
Ecuador is divided into 24 provincias (provinces).
|Galápagos||25,124||8,010||3,093||Puerto Baquerizo Moreno||5|
|Orellana||136,396||22,500||8,700||Puerto Francisco de Orellana||2|
|Santa Elena||308,693||3,763||1,453||Santa Elena||5|
|Santo Domingo de los Tsáchilas||368,013||3,805||1,469||Santo Domingo (de los Colorados)||4|
Note: Populations and areas of the new provinces were calculated by adding up the corresponding figures for the cantons that constitute them.
Ecuador uses six-character postal codes. The first character is the province letter (ISO code of the province). The next two characters are digits indicating the canton. The next two are digits indicating the parish. Finally, one additional letter identifies a local delivery area. That is the explanation given in the Universal Postal Union's document, but I haven't observed these codes in actual use.
See the Cantons of Ecuador page.
The provinces are subdivided into cantones (cantons), which are further subdivided into parroquias (parishes). The parishes are classified as parroquias urbanas (urban) and parroquias rurales (rural). Spanish Wikipedia says that there are 221 cantons and 820 parishes as of late 2013.
Ecuador's territorial claim extended as far as the Marañón River before 1942. In that year, the Protocol of Rio de Janeiro drew the border between Ecuador and Peru shown on most modern maps. However, Ecuador still claims some of the region adjudicated to Peru. This area was part of the Región Oriental, which in 1942 consisted of Napo Pastaza and Santiago Zamora provinces.
Galápagos consists of an isolated island group in the Pacific, including the islands of Fernandina, Isabela (the largest), San Cristóbal (site of the capital), San Salvador, and Santa Cruz.
Guayas contains Isla Puná and other smaller islands in the mouth of the Guayas River.
The UN LOCODE page for Ecuador lists locations in the country, some of them with their latitudes and longitudes, some with their ISO 3166-2 codes for their subdivisions. This information can be put together to approximate the territorial extent of subdivisions.
EC.PI). The canton, but not its capital city, was renamed to match the province.
|Santo Domingo de los Tsáchilas||368,013|
1933 figures are from source , and are described as calculated populations. 1962 figures are "datos corregidos" (corrected data) shown in a later source. For 1933, the entire population of the Región Oriental is shown under Morona-Santiago. For 1950, the population of Napo Pastaza province is shown under Napo, and Santiago Zamora under Morona-Santiago. Other years have similar combinations, according to the provinces existing at each census.
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