Cameroon took a census in 2005-11. The results weren't released until 2010, along with projected populations as of 2010-01-01.
Update 10 to Geopolitical Entities and Codes (formerly FIPS 10-4) is dated 2012-12-31. It changes the English spelling of one region from Center to Centre.
On 2006-06-12, Nigeria and Cameroon signed an agreement transferring the Bakassi Peninsula from Nigeria to Cameroon. This transfer is in compliance with a 2002 decision by the International Court of Justice. The transfer should be fully implemented within two years. The area will now be in Sud-Ouest region. A post to Wikipedia says that it measures about 700 km².
Correction: In "Administrative Subdivisions of Countries", 1982 was given as the date for a reorganization, in which Centre-Sud province was split into Centre and Sud, and Nord province was split into Adamaoua, Extrême-Nord, and Nord. The correct date is 1983-08-22. According to Geographic Notes for 1985-09-30, published by the U.S. State Department, that was the date of Presidential decree 83-390. I have greatly augmented the change history, as shown below.
|Languages||French (fr), English (en)|
In 1900, the German protectorate of Kamerun covered a little more territory than Cameroon does now. On 1911-11-04, it was augmented by a cession of 270,000 sq. km. taken from French Equatorial Africa. In 1916-01, during World War I, France and England seized Kamerun from Germany. France immediately re-integrated its 1911 cession into French Equatorial Africa. On 1922-07-20, former Kamerun was mandated partly to England (90,000 sq. km.) and partly to France (700,000 sq. km.). The British mandate (British Cameroons) was treated as two parts: Northern and Southern Cameroons. After World War II, the mandate was converted to a trust territory under the aegis of the United Nations. The French mandate became the territory of Cameroun. Cameroun gained its independence from France on 1960-01-01. Southern Cameroons united with it on 1961-10-01.
from the Cameroon River, Portuguese Rio dos Camarões: Crayfish River
Cameroon is divided into ten régions (regions).
The two-letter ISO codes (that is, the last two letters of the HASC codes) are used as the first two letters of a license plate number to indicate the vehicle's region of origin. The Universal Postal Union recommends using the ISO codes in postal addresses.
The Ethnia site seems to think that the name of Nord region is East Benue, but I haven't seen that name used anywhere else.
See the Departments of Cameroon page.
The regions are subdivided into départements, which are in turn subdivided into arrondissements. There are districts subordinate to some arrondissements. The number of départements has changed from time to time. There were 33 in ~1965, 39 in ~1982, 49 in ~1987, and 58 in 2000.
The UN LOCODE page for Cameroon lists locations in the country, some of them with their latitudes and longitudes, some with their ISO 3166-2 codes for their subdivisions. This information can be put together to approximate the territorial extent of subdivisions.
|Lom et Kadei||122,789||95,000||Lom-et-Kadei||101,375||51,000|
|Nyong et Sanaga||446,108||28,300||Nyong-et-Sanaga||406,969||10,000|
|14 regions||2,819,791||440,900||19 regions||3,077,080||432,000|
CM01) and West Cameroon (capital Buea, FIPS code
CM02). East Cameroon was equivalent to the old Cameroon, and West Cameroon was the same as Southern Cameroons. At some point, possibly here, the status of regions was changed to departments.
|Centre-Sud||1,491,945||117,500||Yaoundé||Dja-et-Lobo, Haute-Sanaga, Kribi, Lékié, Mbam, Méfou,|
Ntem, Nyong-et-Kéllé, Nyong-et-Mfoumou, Nyong-et-So'o
|Est||366,235||111,200||Bertoua||Bouma-Ngoko, Haut-Nyong, Kadeï, Lom-et-Djerem|
|Littoral||935,166||20,800||Douala||Moungo, Nkam, Sanaga-Maritime, Wouri|
|Nord||2,233,257||164,300||Garoua||Adamaoua, Bénoué, Diamaré, Logone-et-Chari,|
Margui-Wandala, Mayo Danaï
|Nord-Ouest||980,531||17,812||Bamenda||Bamenda, Nkambe, Wum|
|Ouest||1,035,597||13,500||Bafoussam||Bamboutos, Bamoun, Haut-Nkam, Ménoua, Mifi, Ndé|
|Sud-Ouest||620,515||24,571||Buéa||Kumba, Mamfe, Victoria|
Source  has the results of the censuses of 1976, 1987, and 2005. The 1976 figures differed slightly from source , by amounts ranging from 0 to a few hundred in different regions. I've taken source  as authoritative.
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